20 some some disadvantages naturalistic observation

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Unformatted text preview: behaviour. 20 Some Some Disadvantages Naturalistic Observation can provide hints about whether some variable (like temperature) MIGHT Influence some type of behaviour (like problem solving). BUT! BUT this type of study cannot firmly establish the causes of the behaviours that occur. 21 Designed to provide a precise measure of the association between two variables. Positive Correlation High values for one variable are associated with high values for the other variable. Household income is positively correlated with total distance traveled by family members each year. 22 Designed to provide a precise measure of the association between two variables. Negative Correlation High values for one variable are associated with low values for the other variable. Frequency of exercise is negatively correlated with number of doctor visits per year. 23 Designed to provide a precise measure of the association between two variables. Zero Correlation High values for one variable are not at all related to values of the other variable. Eyelash length is not correlated with IQ. 24 An An Advantage Provides a precise, numerical measure of the degree of association between two variables. Correlation Coefficient (a.k.a. r ) Varies between +1.0 and -1.0. +1.0 = perfect positive correlation -1.0 = perfect negative correlation 0.0 = no correlation 25 26 Disadvantage A Disadvantage Establishing a correlation between two variables does not provide information as to the the cause of either variable. 27 Consider Consider the Following Positive Correlation The number of priests in a community is positively correlated with the number of prostitutes. Priests ↑ = Prostitutes ↑ Knowing this leaves three possibilities. 28 Possibility Possibility #1: As the number of priests increase in a community, this causes the number of prostitutes to increase....
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