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Unformatted text preview: in question. 8 Measurement
The extent that the procedure actually
measures what the researcher
intends it to measure.
Recording participants’ height does not represent
a valid procedure for measuring intelligence. 9 Measurement
The extent that the procedure
produces the same measure across
different points in time.
(An unreliable weight scale will vary wildly in the # of kilograms
it reports for a person, despite
no actual change in the person’s weight.) 10 11 12 13 14 With our operational definitions in place
we can design our study…
but, there are many types of
studies we could do. 15 A researcher observes a naturally occurring behaviour.
Can rely on ongoing behaviours observed
“in real time” or with reference to
(records of naturally occurring behaviour
that has already taken place –
e.g., diaries, medical records, court proceedings). 16 The
The Main Advantage
Since observations obtained are based on natural
events, the findings should be highly relevant for
understanding real-life psychological processes.
-this is called ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY 17 Some
There is a risk of observer bias.
If the researcher has expectations about what people
or animals should behave like and why,
they might misinterpret behaviours as consistent
with those views. 18 Some
There is a risk of expectancy effects.
The people (or animals?) under observation may guess
the researchers expectations for the study,
leading them to change their behaviour to help
(or sabotage) the researcher.
Plus the Heidelberg Principle
Merely observing a phenomenon changes its behaviour. 19 Some
Real-life events are so complex, there is no way to know
for sure what factor caused any specific...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2014 for the course PSYCH 1200 taught by Professor Dougalards-tomalin during the Fall '13 term at Manitoba.
- Fall '13