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Unformatted text preview: in question. 8 Measurement Measurement VALIDITY VALIDITY The extent that the procedure actually measures what the researcher intends it to measure. Recording participants’ height does not represent a valid procedure for measuring intelligence. 9 Measurement Measurement RELIABILITY RELIABILITY The extent that the procedure produces produces the same measure across different points in time. (An unreliable weight scale will vary wildly in the # of kilograms it reports for a person, despite no actual change in the person’s weight.) 10 11 12 13 14 With our operational definitions in place we can design our study… but, there are many types of studies we could do. 15 A researcher observes a naturally occurring behaviour. Can rely on ongoing behaviours observed “in real time” or with reference to ARCHIVAL DATA (records of naturally occurring behaviour that has already taken place – e.g., diaries, medical records, court proceedings). 16 The The Main Advantage Since observations obtained are based on natural events, the findings should be highly relevant for understanding understanding real-life psychological processes. -this is called ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY 17 Some Some Disadvantages There is a risk of observer bias. If the researcher has expectations about what people or animals should behave like and why, they might misinterpret behaviours as consistent with those views. 18 Some Some Disadvantages There is a risk of expectancy effects. The people (or animals?) under observation may guess the researchers expectations for the study, leading them to change their behaviour to help (or sabotage) the researcher. Plus the Heidelberg Principle Merely observing a phenomenon changes its behaviour. 19 Some Some Disadvantages Real-life events are so complex, there is no way to know for sure what factor caused any specific...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2014 for the course PSYCH 1200 taught by Professor Dougalards-tomalin during the Fall '13 term at Manitoba.

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