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Unformatted text preview: able.
If confounding variables exist,
one cannot be sure that it is the Independent Variable
that caused changes in the Dependent Variable. A person should wear exactly the same amount of clothes
in our Room vs. High Temperature experiment. 38 Observer
If the researcher has an expectation about the outcome
of an experiment, their interpretation of the behaviour
might be biased in favour of their hypothesis. Expectancy Effects
Participants might guess what the researchers’
expectations are for the outcome of the study,
causing them to behave as expected or to go out of
their way to behave contrary to expectations.
A type of expectancy effect that can occur in
experiments meant to determine the effectiveness of
some medical or psychological treatment.
A person can experience improvement in some
physical or mental ailment merely due
to their expectations that the treatment will help. 40 These challenges to conducting a proper
experimental study can be overcome
CONTROL PROCEDURES 41 Confounding
can be minimized in two ways: Standardization and Random Assignment
Random 42 Standardization
Every participant should be treated the same
way (as much as possible) so that the only thing
that could produce a difference in behaviour
is the Independent Variable. 43 The
The Magic of Random Assignment
Assigning participants to the different groups at
random ensures that participants within the different
groups are about the same on all relevant dimensions.
This issue only applies to
Between-Subjects Experimental Designs 44 can be overcome through DoubleDouble-Blind Control
both experimenters conducting the study and
participants in the study are kept
unaware of the hypothesis of the study.
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- Fall '13