If confounding variables exist one cannot be sure

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Unformatted text preview: able. If confounding variables exist, one cannot be sure that it is the Independent Variable that caused changes in the Dependent Variable. A person should wear exactly the same amount of clothes in our Room vs. High Temperature experiment. 38 Observer Observer Bias If the researcher has an expectation about the outcome of an experiment, their interpretation of the behaviour might be biased in favour of their hypothesis. Expectancy Effects Participants might guess what the researchers’ expectations are for the outcome of the study, causing them to behave as expected or to go out of their way to behave contrary to expectations. 39 Placebo Placebo Effects A type of expectancy effect that can occur in experiments meant to determine the effectiveness of some some medical or psychological treatment. A person can experience improvement in some physical or mental ailment merely due to their expectations that the treatment will help. 40 These challenges to conducting a proper experimental study can be overcome by by employing CONTROL PROCEDURES 41 Confounding Confounding Variables can be minimized in two ways: Standardization and Random Assignment Random 42 Standardization Standardization Every participant should be treated the same way (as much as possible) so that the only thing that could produce a difference in behaviour is the Independent Variable. 43 The The Magic of Random Assignment Assigning participants to the different groups at random ensures that participants within the different groups are about the same on all relevant dimensions. This issue only applies to Between-Subjects Experimental Designs 44 can be overcome through DoubleDouble-Blind Control both experimenters conducting the study and participants in the study are kept unaware of the hypothesis of the study. (That wa...
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