Unformatted text preview: y the experimenter cannot be biased in interpreting
participants’ behaviours and the participants’ behaviours cannot be
influenced by knowledge of the study’s hypothesis.) 45 can be overcome through Placebo Controls
which involve comparing the effectiveness of a
treatment for physical or psychological ailments against
a phony treatment that is known to be ineffective.
(Allows for separating the effect of participants’
expectations from the real effect of the treatment.) 46 The goal of an experimental study is to establish a
causal association between variables that
applies broadly (i.e., to all humans).
An experimenter cannot run everyone
through the study – it would take too long. 47 Population
The group that the experimenter wants to generalize to
(i.e., all humans, or all children, or people with red hair…) Sample
The people that actually participates in the study.
(some much smaller number of people than exist in the population) 48 If the experimenter would like their results to GENERALIZE (or consider them applicable)
to the population as a whole, the sample must be REPRESENTATIVE
(it must match the characteristics of the population
as closely as possible on dimensions
such as gender, age, ethnicity, social class, education, etc.) 49 50...
View Full Document
- Fall '13
- Psychology, Causality, Correlation and dependence, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient