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Hotbeds of Activism: Locations of Student Protest* NELLA VAN DYKE, University of Arizona Some colleges and universities stand out in the popular imagination as hotbeds of political activism, while others do not. In this paper, I examine the factors that account for this variation in campus activism: why student activism occurred on some campuses during the 1960s and not others. With some notable exceptions (e.g., Soule 1997) theoretical developments and insights in the social movement literature have not been applied to student activism. In addition, most existing studies of student protest are ahistorical. They examine protest only within one time period, failing to recognize the influence of history and culture in fostering protest activity. I use social movement theory to explore the factors that influence the location of student protest, and develop the hypothesis that a history of activism is strongly associated with student protest. I also demonstrate that locations that have protest around one issue are likely to have protest around multiple issues. I suggest that this is due to the influ- ence of activist subcultures, which underlie movement families within a protest cycle, influencing the ideology and tactics of activist organizations. A sample of 423 colleges forms the basis for these analyses, conducted using logistic and OLS regression models. The vanguard student activist organization of the 1960s, the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), had approximately 300 chapters on college campuses at its zenith. Although 300 is an impressive number of chapters for a student organization, it represents only fifteen percent of college campuses. Widespread student activism was absent from the majority of the nation's colleges and universities. The University of California at Berkeley may have earned an enduring reputation as an activist campus, but most colleges of the era did not. In this paper, I examine the factors which account for this variation in campus activism: why student activism occurred on some campuses during the 1960s and not others. We know very little about the factors that explain the emergence of activism in particular locations, or why the political repertoire on a campus becomes contentious. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, scholars determined that student activism tends to occur at elite schools, and on large campuses (Bayer and Astin 1969; Buchanan and Brackett 1970; Hodgkinson 1970; Lipset 1976). The mechanisms used to explain these findings reflect the social movement theories current at the time, namely individual predisposition theories, and breakdown theory. With some notable exceptions (e.g., Soule 1997), more recent theoretical developments and insights in the social movement literature have not been applied to student activism. In addition, most existing studies of student protest are ahistorical. They examine protest only within one time period, failing to recognize the influence of history and culture in fostering protest activity. I use social movement theory to explore the factors which influence

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