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Unformatted text preview: densities adjacent to esophagus
Esophagitis causes? herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, TB
Paraesophageal hernia? and gastroesophageal junction below esophageal hiatus, Fundus of stomach above hiatus, adjacent to distal esophagus
Gastric hernia rotations?
Organoaxial (long axis rotation). Mesenteroaxial (upside down stomach)
Gastric varcies without esophageal varices?thrombosis.
hallmark findikng of splenic vein
Small bowel malignant(masses, nodular wall thickening), Hematogenous metastases (melanoma, breast lung, RCC), Carcinoid (appendix, mesenteric small bowel, fibrosing reaction) Adenocarcinoma (duodenum) Leiomyosarcoma (large, exophytic, necrosis)
Crohn's disease CT features?
Terminal ileum 80%, Circumferential thickening (target and double halo), Marked wall enhancement, "comb sign" hyperemic vasa recta, Segmental strictures, Skip areas, Fistulas and sinus tracts, abscesses.
Complete mechanical SBO? 2,5 cm, distinct transition zone
Dilatation of SB >
Dilatation of distal and proximal SB without transition zone
Partial mechanical SBO? less distinct, small bowel feces
Sclerosing Inflammatoryfeatures? of unknown cause, chronic inflammation, fat necrosis, fibrosis, misty mesentery
Cystic mesentericlymphangiomas, Cystic mesothelioma (rare, benign tumor) cystic teratomas (fat, calcification)
MesentericLymphoma (most common), Metastases (more common than primary tumors), Mesenteric fibromatosis (desmoid tumor), GISTs (large, hemorrhage, necrosis) Sarcomas (leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma,liposarcoma)
Colon volvulus types?
Sigmoid volvulus (most common, mesenteric whirl), Cecal volvulus, Cecal bascule (folding rather than twisting of cecum)
Fibrolammelar Carcinomahealthy liver Enhances prominently and heterogeneously Central scar Difficult to distinguish from FNH
Large mass in CT features?
Liver lymphoma CT features? Well-defined, homogeneous low-density nodules, Numerous small nodules resembling microabscesses
Hepatic adenoma women on oral contraceptives. Men on anabolic steroids. Glycogen storage disease (multiple). Surgical removal for fear of rupture or malignant transformatoin. Unenhanced, isodense to liver. Arterial phase, early homogeneous enhancement. Few Kupffer cells, no sulfur colloid uptake
Young CT features?
FNH CT features?
Mini liver central stellate scar and fibrous bands. Unenhanced, isodense to liver. Arterial phase, immediate intense homogeneous enhancement. May have delayed enhancement of scar. Positive sulfur colloid uptake
CavernousUnenhanced, hypodense mass. Arterial phase, peripheral nodules of contrast. Venous phase, progressive filling-in from periphery. Delayed, prolonged enhancement. Small hemangiomas, immediate homogeneous enhancement.
Hemangioma CT features?
Cystic liverHepatic cysts Pyogenic abscess Amebic abscess Hydatid cyst
Normal bile duct measurements? in central liver. Common duct < 6 mm. Give 1 mm per decade in elderly
Intrahepatic ducts 2 mm
CT findings of biliary obstruction?
Dilated intrahepatic biliary ducts, Dilatation of common duct > 7 mm, Gallbladder diameter > 5 cm
Precursors Choledochal cyst Primary sclerosing cholangitis Caroli's disease intrahepatic stone disease Clonorchiasis
cholangiocarcinoma CTmass-forming, homogeneous tumor with irregular borders. Periduct...
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- Winter '14