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Extensive contact between
What passes through the aortic hiatus? thoracic duct, intercostal arteries, splanchnic nerves.
Aorta, azygos, hemiazygos,
What passes through the esophagealsmall blood vessels.
Esophagus, vagus nerve, hiatus?
Anterior mediastinal node groups?
Internal mammary nodes, Paracardiac nodes, Prevascular nodes.
Middle mediastinal node groups?
Pretracheal or paratracheal nodes, Aortopulmonary nodes, Subcarinal noes, Peribronchial nodes.
Posterior mediastinal node groups? Inferior pulmonary ligament nodes, Paravertebral nodes.
Upper limits of cm
1.5 normal for subcarinal lymph node diameter?
Egg-shell calcified mediastinal lymph node, differential?
Silicosis, Coal worker's pneumoconiosis, Sarcoidosis, Tuberculosis.
Calcified mediastinal lymph node, differential?
Prior granulomatous disease (TB, histo, fungal, sarcoidosis), Silicosis, Coal worker's pneumoconiosis, treated Hodgkin's disease, Metastasis
Mediastinal lymph nodedisease, Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, Vascular metastases, TB, Sometimes sarcoidosis.
Left upper lobe cancers involve what mediastinal lymph node group?
Aortopulmonary window nodes
Lower lobeSubcarinal nodes
lung cancers involve what mediastinal lymph node group?
Resectability non-small cell lung cancer stages? are N3, unresectable
Stage IIIb-IV, contralateral lymph nodes
Sarcoidosis thoracic adenopathy features?Lymphoma is typically asymmetrical.
Symmetric hilar adenopathy,
Prevascular space tumors?
4Ts: thymoma, teratoma, thyroid tumor, terrible lymphoma. Other germ-cell tumors, parathyroid masses, lymphangioma
aka angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia Focal form (Enhancing hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes) Diffuse form (Enhancing mediastinal, hilar, axillary, abdominal, and inguinal node)
CT features of thymoma? paracardiac location, Typically unilateral, Calcification or cystic degeneration can be present
Thymoma, thymic carcinoma, thymic carcinoid tumor, thymolipoma, thymic cyst thymic hyperplasia and rebound (after cessation of chemotherapy)
Three main categories of germ-cell tumors?2. Seminoma (radiosensitive), 3. Non-seminomatous germ-cell tumors (poor prognosis: choriocarcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor, mixed tumors).
1. Teratoma and dermoid cyst,
Teratoma versus dermoid cyst?
Teratoma contains ecto-, meso-, and endodermal origins (can be cystic, contain fat, have fat-fluid level, or calcify). Can be mature or immature (malignant). Dermoid cyst primarily from epidermal tissue.
Lymphangioma types? thin-walled with connective tissue. Cavernous--dilated lymphatic channels. Cystic--hygromas, single or multiple cystic masses filled with serous or milky fluid.
Saber-sheath trachealateral dimension of intrathoracic trachea. COPD, repeated trauma from coughing
ConcentricIntubation, Polychondritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Amyloidosis, Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica
tracheal narrowing causes?
Bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cyst features?
Anomalous budding of foregut. Most commonly within subcarinal space. Esophageal duplication cyst indistinguishable from bronchogenic, except they always contact the esophagus
ParavertebralPeripheral nerve ordivisions?
1. neurogenic tumor nerve sheath (neurofibroma, neurilemmoma--young adults). 2. Sympathetic ganglia (ganglioneuroma, neuroblastoma--children). 3. Paraganglionic cells (pheochromocytoma, chemodectoma).
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- Winter '14