Unformatted text preview: dneys. Normally regress by 4 months of age. Bilateral lobulated and enlarged kidneys. Marked compression and stretching of pelvicaliceal structures. Large echogenic and lobular kidneys. May demonstrate diffuse hypoechoic cortical thickening. Nephrogenic rests are generally cortical, hypoechoic, low attenuationand T1 hypointense.
Primitive Neuroblastoma features
Arise along axis of sympathetic nerves (paraspinal). 66% are abdominal. Intraspinal involvement is common. Majority occur between 6 months and 5 years. Present with weight loss. irritability. fever. and/or anemia. Frequently show stippled calcification. Poor prognosis with abdominal involvment in patients over 1 year of age. MIBG avid.
Nonbilious Often just GER. Infections:months to 2 years the possibilities include:
vomiting in infants aged 2 Meningitis. Urinary tract infection.
Nonvisualized kidney causes
Congenital absence. Surgically removed. Ectopic kidney. Multicystic dysplastic kidney. Renal artery thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis. Tumor.
Normal or decreased lung volumes and(RDSgranular opacities (ground glass) streptococcal pneumonia
Hyaline membrane disease fine and HMD). Group B b-hemolytic with air bronchograms.
Of the talar and calcaneal joint coalitions which is rarest
Older children develop adrenal hemorrhage as a result of
Accidental and nonaccidental trauma. Meningococcemia. Anticoagulant therapy.
Multiple enchondromas generally presenting in childhood. Generaly asymptomatic. Risk of malignant transformation.
Ostium secundum versus ostium primum atrialtype of defects?
Ostium secundum: Most common septal ASD. Occurs centrally at foramen ovale. Ostium primum: Endocardial cushion defect. Commonly occurs in trisomy 21. Overcirculation. increased arterial flow. and increased vascularity suggest
Passive congestion pulmonary venous pressure. Commonly caused by left heart failure. Progressed from dilated veins to indistinct pulmonary vessels to interstitial edema to alveolar edema and pleural effusions.
PDA heart chamber changes PA, and proximal Aorta.
Enlarged LA, LV, Pediatric neoplasms thatHepatoblastoma. thrombus.
Wilms tumor. cause caval tumor
Persistence of fetal circulation after birth is called
Persistent pulmonary hypertension.
Plain film findings of intussusception? bowel obstruction: dilated bowel and air-fluid levels.
Abdominal mass. Signs of
Bilateral left-sidedness: Multiple spleens. Bilateral bilobed lungs. Interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. Biliary atresia
Possible Causes of childhood Bilateral Lung Hyperinflation
Diffuse peripheral obstruction: Viral bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Asthma. Cystic fibrosis. Immunologic deficiency diseases. Chronic aspiration. Graft versus host disease. Central obstruction: Extrinsic (Vascular anomalies, Mediastinal masses). Intrinsic (Tracheal foreign body, Tracheal neoplasm/granuloma). Possible routes ofLymph nodes and extensive nodal masses. Invasion of neuroforamina. Encasement of great vessels. Remote: Bone. Liver. Central nervous system (extradural space and orbit)
Local: neuroblastoma spread
Posterior mediastinum mass (T.disease) or any spinal infection. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (almost always in adults). Neurogenic tumors: Neuroblastoma. Ganglioneuroma. Neurofibroma. Neurenteric cyst.
Tuberculosis (Pott's E. N)
Posterior urethral common cause of urethral obstruction in males. Dilated posterior urethra. Bladder wall thickening and trabeculation. VUR.
Most valve findings Premature Pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Pneumomediastinum. Pneumothorax. Pneumopericardium.
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