# lec2 - BUAD 310 G MUKHERJEE FALL 2013 LECTURE 2 OUTLINE v...

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BUAD 310 G. MUKHERJEE FALL 2013: LECTURE 2

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OUTLINE v Data Visualization and Summary Statistics § Categorical Variable [Ch 3]: nominal, ordinal (abbr. nom and ord) § Numerical Variable [Ch 4] (abbr. num) Graphical Display For distributions: § Bar charts, Pie charts [cat] § Histogram, Box Plots [num] Summary Statistics: § Measures of Central Tendency: Median [ord, num], Mean [num], Mode [cat, num,]. § Measures of Spread: IQR[ord, num], Standard Deviation [num].
Data v Consists of values of some variables measured or observed for some individuals (not necessarily people, also referred to as items) . v Variable is a characteristic of an individual. q qualitative a.k.a. categorical : Places an individual into one of several groups or categories ü Ordinal: categories can be ordered. ü Nominal: non-ordinal. q quantitative a.k.a. numerical : takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations make sense

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Data Tables v Columns correspond to Variables. v Rows correspond to individuals. v Rows are often called observations or cases. v The number of rows is traditionally denoted by n. SAMPLE BUAD310 ROSTER
Exploratory Data Analysis Strategy for the initial examination of the data: 1. Begin by examining each variable. 2. Move on to the study of relationships. 3. At each stage start with graphs. Then add numerical summaries.

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Distributions v Distribution of a variable What possible values the variable takes and how frequently it takes those values. There are many methods to describe and display distributions .
Distributions of Categorical Variables The values of a categorical variable are the labels for the categories. The distribution of a categorical variable is described by either the count or the percent of individuals who fall in each category. Example: BUAD310: Class Composition [2 sections taken together] CLASS LEVEL Count Percent U1 43 29.452 U2 57 39.041 U3 33 22.603 U4 13 8.904

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Graphs for Categorical Variables v In the bar chart the height of each bar is proportional to the count (or percent) in each category
Graphs for Categorical Variables v In the pie chart the area of each piece is proportional to the percent of individuals in each category

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Bar charts and Pie charts Bar chart is called a Pareto chart when the
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lec2 - BUAD 310 G MUKHERJEE FALL 2013 LECTURE 2 OUTLINE v...

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