Highlights . . . Rule 11(a) . . . Every pleading, written motion, and other paper must be signed by at least one attorney of record Rule 11(b) . . . By submitting a written document to the court, counsel is certifying that (1) Document is not for any improper purpose; (2) The claims, defenses, and other legal contentions are warranted by existing law etc. (3) The factual contentions have evidentiary support; and (4) The denials of factual contentions are warranted on the evidence Rule 11 – Signing Pleadings . . . Representations to the Court
Rule 11 Mantra S top Before you file a document with the Court T hink Why am I filing this? What purpose does it serve? Is that purpose legitimate? I nvestigate
Highlights . . . Rule 8(a) . . . Complaint MUST contain 3 things . . . Rule 8(a)(1) : a short and plain statement of the grounds for the court’s jurisdiction . . . ; Rule 8(a)(2) : a short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief ; and Rule 8(a)(3) : a demand for the relief sought Rule 8 – General Rules of Pleading COMPLAINTS
Under Rule 8(a)(2) , “short and plain statement of the claim” now means . . . Plaintiff must plead enough FACTS “ to state a claim that is PLAUSIBLE on its face . ” This is, of course, Twiqbal CRITICAL QUESTION : Based on the facts pled in the complaint (which we must accept as true), is the CLAIM plausible? Remember . . . The CLAIM must be PLAUSIBLE . . . Rule 8 – General Rules of Pleading COMPLAINTS
What does PLAUSIBILITY mean? Plausible > possible or conceivable Plausible < probable Plausible = a right to relief “above the speculative level” Plausible = “a reasonable expectation that discovery will reveal evidence” Plausible = “ more than an unadorned, the-defendant-unlawfully-harmed-me accusations” Plausible > “naked assertions” or “formulaic recitation of elements” (without more) Plausible = reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged Rule 8 – General Rules of Pleading COMPLAINTS
How do you evaluate a Complaint based on the Plausibility Standard? 2 step analysis . . .
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