Chemotherapy is addikve but side eects are not

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Unformatted text preview: on – local but far from perfect Systemic Cancers: Chemotherapy as Adjuvant therapy: used as “insurance policy” a]er surgery and radiaKon anKneoplasKcs – anK new growth poisons, by definiKon cytotoxic compounds – interfere with synthesis or funcKon of DNA, RNA, essenKal proteins goal is to shrink tumor to 10E4 or fewer cells, then the body cleans up the rest minimize side effects by giving smaller doses of different anKneoplasKc agents (with disKnct mechanisms) hoping that the chemotherapy is addiKve, but side effects are not Biological response modifiers immunotherapy Pharmacogenomics – personalized approaches to chemotherapy based on geneKcs (eg Hercep5n, iman5nib [Glivac]) Chemical warfare vs Chemotherapy An5cancer drugs: DNA cross- linking agents DNA: cis- Pt(NH3)2 An5cancer drugs: DNA intercala5ng agents stack between DNA bases: dacKnomycin (acKnomycin D) Minor groove binding Complex is very stable à༎ Prevents unwinding à༎ Prevents DNA- dep RNA poly from catalyzing the synth of mRNA (transcripKon) An5cancer drugs: DNA intercala5ng agents Topoisomerase I poisons – stabilize the enzyme- DNA complex, which does not get relaxed An5cancer drugs: an5metabolites Methotrexate with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and NADPH An5cancer drugs: an5metabolites InhibiKon of thymidylate synthase with 5- fluorouracil Normal thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) biosynthesis: Disrupted dTMP biosynthesis: An5cancer drugs: hormone- based therapies Used when cancers are hormone- dependent (~80% of breast cancer) If cancer requires a specific hormone, can administer another hormone which has opposing effect Hormone antagonists can also be used to block the acKon of the req’d hormone Especially important for breast cancer therapy Tamoxifen – antagonist of the (o)estrogen receptor in breast Kssue Prevents binding of (o)estradiol Breast cancer Most commonly diagnosed cancer in women Second leading c...
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2014 for the course CHEM 167 taught by Professor Amaro during the Winter '13 term at UCSD.

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