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Unformatted text preview: status hierarchy' (1986: 171). This analysis of what smiling means has in turn been linked with ®ndings suggesting that women smile more than men and that they are more likely to return smiles than men (Henley 1986: 175±178). It has also been linked with the observation that women are routinely expected to smile, and sometimes publicly castigated by complete strangers if they do not smile. Shulamith Firestone (1970: 90) once proposed a `smile boycott' as a form of feminist political action; # Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 2000 d:/3socio/4-3/cameron.3d ± 29/6/0 ± 21:6 ± disk/mp STYLING THE WORKER 335 in 1999 female ¯ight attendants employed by Cathay Paci®c airlines threatened to take industrial action in a dispute on pay and conditions by refusing to smile at passengers for one hour of every ¯ight. Such actions are meaningful precisely because of the existence of strong symbolic links between smiling, femininity and subordinate status.8 As for expressive intonation, it is both a stereotype and in some cases an empirical ®nding that female speakers exploit a broader pitc...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2014 for the course ANTHRO 33 taught by Professor Wertheim during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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