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• based upon long-term ethnographic fieldwork • Par.cipant Observa.on The observer par>cipates in ongoing ac>vi>es and records observa>ons. Par>cipant observa>on extends beyond naturalis>c observa>on because the observer is a "player" in the ac>on. The technique is used in many studies in Anthropology and Sociology • Observer's paradox refers to phenomena where the observa>on of an event or experiment is inﬂuenced by the presence of the observer/inves>gator. • Mendoza‐Denton acknowledges her own background and how it inﬂuences her research. She describes how she ini>ally got involved in this research topic. She describes at length her own personal history, background, and iden>ty as it deﬁnes her interac>ons with students, and hence her research and results. • Semio>c resources. • Semio>c = having to do with signs; resource = any abstract or concrete thing that people can deploy, e.g. money, reputa>on, etc. • Semio>c resources are ways of expressing meaning. Almost anything can serve as a sign, for example as a sign about someone's iden>ty. Goal 3: Nortenas vs. Surenas Name Nortenas Surenas Color Red, Burgundy Blue, Navy Language English Spanish Numbers XIV, 14, 4 XIII, 13, 3 Music Motown Oldies Banda music Hairdo Feathered hair Ver>cal ponytail Makeup Deep red lips>ck Brown lips>ck Place Northern Hemisphere (U.S.) (Chicana) Southern Hemisphere (Mexico) (Mexican) Language Choice as a Means of Shaping Identity By Janet M. Fuller • Fuller examines how language choice is used to express and nego>ate iden>ty in a bilingual classroom. Focuses on inter‐
speaker code switching (e.g. A speaks Spanish; B answers in English.) • Data: 4 bilingual 4th graders in a “Limited English Proﬁciency” class (note: actual English ability varies from student to student.) • English proﬁciency of Dora, Lucia, Miguel, Antonio by objec>ve standards Three ESL groups Highest Middle Antonio Dora, Lucia, Miguel Low Dora & Lucia Miguel Antonio ‐ their home environment fostered use of both languages ‐ “best friend” rela>onship emphasizes features they share with each others but not with others: bilingualism. ‐ a conversa>on with several other children about a trip to the forest, D and L repeatedly use English, even when answering a ques>on posed in Spanish. ‐parents spoke li6le English at home and he was less conﬁdent in his English abili>es. ‐ ‐ Spanish dominant = strong “Mexicano” iden>ty. ‐ speaks mainly Spanish to peers more. ‐ however, when speaking to teacher, adheres to the language of instruc>on (Eng or Spanish) as a way of emphasizing academic ability. ‐ ID primarily as a strong student ‐ codeswitches to show his ability as a balanced bilingual 1) thereby posi>o...
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- Spring '08
- • Morgan, adjacency pair format