Duranti1997_Greetings

But the translation is problematic first of all on

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Unformatted text preview: eria can allow us to exclude words and exchanges that are not greetings. A good candidate for such a test is the Samoan term tulouna or tulounga.76 In Augustine Kramer's (1902-03) extensive ethnography of Samoan history and social life, tulounga was translated to the German gegriisst, the past participle of the verb grussen 'greef. The English version of the German text done by Theodore Verhaaren (Kramer 1994) mirrors the same translation with the English greeted. Here is an example from Kramer's book; (16) shows the original, and (17), the English translation.27 The passage is taken from the beginning part of the fa 'alupenga (ceremonial address of the village of Falefe, which is the site of the exchanges analyzed in this article). Universal and Culture-Specific Properties of Greetings (16) Tulounga a 'oe le faleatua tulounga a 'oe le 'a'ai o Fonott Gegriisst du das Hans von Atua gegriisst die Stadt des Fonott [Kramer 1902:277] (17) Tulounga a 'oe le faleatua tulounga a 'oe le 'a'ai o Fonott Greeted you, the house of Atua greeted Fonotfs city [Kramer 1994:360] The translation of tulounga with "greeted" at the beginning of each phrase achieves the goal of mirroring the word order of Samoan (verbfirst).But the translation is problematic first of all on empirical grounds, given that tulounga is not used in any of the ceremonial greetings I described above. For example, tulounga is never mentioned in the ceremonial greetings despite the fact that they are quite formal and, as we saw above, include sections of the ceremonial address (fa'alupenga) of the village, the context in which tulouna appears in Kramer's text. Instead, I found tulounga (pronounced /kulounga/; see the appendix) in the first speech given during the meetings of the fono. In this context, as I suggested in Duranti 1981, it makes sense to translate it to "acknowledgment" or "recognition":28 (18) [April 7 , 1979: first speech of the meeting, by orator Loa] Loa: ia'. Well, (2.0) kulounga ia (1.0) a le aofia ma le fongo, recognition indeed... of the assembly and the council, (3.0) kulounga le vilingia ma—kulounga le saukia, recognition (of) the suffering and—recognition (of) the early arrival, (2.0) kulounga Moamoa 'o kua o Lalongafu'afu'a recognition (of) Moamoa?9 the back of Lalongafu'afu'a30 I...] The translation of tulouna (or tulounga) with recognition (one might even consider the term apology, given its obvious relation to the expression "tulou!" [excuse (me)]31) is consistent with the description provided in Miner's dictionary: Expression used before mentioning important names or titles (esp. when making a speech). It implies that the speaker makes a formal acknowledgement of their importance, expresses his deference and respect for the established order, and apologizes for any offence he might inadvertently give when speaking before the distinguished assembly. (N.B. This expression is used repeatedly in uttering the ceremonial style and address of a social group or village Ifa'alupenga]). [1966286-287] *</*** 87 88 Journal of Linguistic Anthropology When we match tulounga again...
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