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Unformatted text preview: cal Constraints Conditioned taste aversion Biological Biological preparedness influences learned aversions: [Sweet water + light + buzzing] + X-ray ?? ray [ … + … + … + electric shock ?? electric We We develop aversion for food but not to people who were were with us meantime Applications: Save coyotes and sheeps’ lives (lithium Save sheeps lives chloride+meat chloride+meat) Cancer children given unusual -tasting candy M. Bassil PSYC 202 Biological Constraints Are Are We Biologically Prepared to Fear Certain Things? Things? 4-yr girl feared snake after smashing hand in car Experiment: Pictures of snakes, flowers, spiders, Pictures houses, houses, angry faces, happy faces… paired with paired electric shock fear responses?? Fear can be conditioned more easily to some stimuli Fear than others (those with greater evolutionary significance) significance) M. Bassil PSYC 202 22 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/18/2009 Biological Biological Constraints Constraints on Operant Conditioning: Animals That “Won’t Shape Up” Training Training chicken to play baseball pecked pecked furiously furiously (ball represented food) W ild Wild rats that press lever eventually go back to scratching scratching & biting it Instinctive drift: tendency for a conditioned tendency response to drift back toward instinctive behavior (e.g. trained or adopted dangerous animals) animals) M. Bassil PSYC 202 Cognition & Conditioning S-R (stimulus-response) psychology challenged In between there is something else: Organism’s (O) cognitive representation of the world S-O-R—cognitive model of learning M. Bassil PSYC 202 23 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/18/2009 Cognition Cognition & Conditioning Early Challenges to Behaviorism: Insight & Cognitive Insight Maps Maps Not all learning is thru trial & error Insight: sudden perception of a useful relationship that sudden helps solve a problem (contemplation Sultan the Sultan ape) ape) BUT BUT to behaviorists, insight is combining previously operantly operantly conditioned responses M. Bassil PSYC 202 Cognition & Conditioning Tolman’s work on spatial learning in rats: Reinforcement doesn’t always always lead the way in a maze, rather a Cognitive map Cognitive (mental (mental representation of spatial layout) learning doesn’t merely stamp in S-R connections, connections, but provides knowledge Develop expectancy (or a cognitive evelop expectancy (or representation) of “what leads to what” M. Bassil PSYC 202 24 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/18/2009 Cognit...
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This document was uploaded on 01/15/2014.

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