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Bassil psyc 202 positive punishment rat presses bar

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Unformatted text preview: delivered Bar Pressing Decreases M. Bassil PSYC 202 12 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 11/18/2009 NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT Rat Presses Bar Pleasant Stimulus: food is removed Bar Pressing Decreases M. Bassil PSYC 202 The The Power of Immediate Consequences Consequences Immediate consequences have have a stronger effect on behavior than those delayed delayed Animal training Engaging in behaviors with maladaptive longterm consequences Powerful negative reinforcers (nicotine) M. Bassil PSYC 202 13 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 11/18/2009 Shaping Shaping & Chaining: Taking Taking One Step at a Time Shaping (method (method of successive approximations): reinforcing successive approximations toward a final response reduces acquisition time (e.g. learning how to swim) Chaining: to to develop a sequence (chain) of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response. begins with final response in sequence & works begins backwards towards 1st (e.g. bell, light, food) Bassil PSYC 202 (e.g. M. Principles in Operant Conditioning Operant Operant generalization: an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one (e.g. dog dog sits on command) Operant Operant discrimination: an operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another another (e.g. presence/absence of parents) Stimulus control Stimulus (e.g. (e.g. police car) M. Bassil PSYC 202 14 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 11/18/2009 Schedules of Reinforcement Have Have strong & predictable effects on learning, learning, performance & extinction Continuous reinforcement: every response every of a particular type is reinforced (e.g. vending machine) machine) Reinforce every correct response Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: only a only portion of the responses of a particular M. Bassil PSYC 202 type are reinforced Partial Reinforcement Schedules Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Fixed Variable M. Bassil PSYC 202 15 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 11/18/2009 Schedules of Reinforcement Partial reinforcements 1. Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule • • Reinforc...
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