G by inhibiting reuptake m bassil psyc 202 drugs the

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Unformatted text preview: eurotransmitters • bind with & stimulate postsynaptic receptor sites • make it more difficult for neurotransmitters to be make deactivated, deactivated, e.g. by inhibiting reuptake M. Bassil PSYC 202 Drugs & the Brain How Drugs Inhibit Synaptic Transmission Antagonist drugs: inhibit/decrease action of inhibit/decrease neurotransmitter neurotransmitter • reduce reduce neuron’s ability to synthesize, store, or release release neurotransmitters • prevent prevent neurotransmitter from binding with postsynaptic neuron, by fitting into & blocking receptor sites M. Bassil PSYC 202 27 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/4/2009 Antipsychotics Antipsychotics = dopamine dopamine antagonists - Opiate = endorphin - Amphetamines ↑ Amphetamines dopamine + norepinephrine norepinephrine M. Bassil PSYC 202 Drug-intake Processes intake Tolerance: decreasing responsitivity to a drug over decreasing repeated repeated use (consequently increase the dosage to achieve (consequently same same psychological & physical effects) Compensatory responses: reactions produced by reactions brain opposite to that of drug (to maintain homeostasis) (to Withdrawal: occurrence of compensatory responses occurrence after sudden discontinued drug use ► reactions reactions (e.g. alcohol► anxiety, hypertension) Learning, Drug Tolerance, & Overdose: Familiarity of drug settings M. Bassil PSYC 202 28 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/4/2009 Drug Drug Addiction (Dependence) (Dependence) Substance dependence (a maladaptive pattern of (a substance use causing a person distress & impairing life: life: physiological & psychological) Misconceptions about Substance Dependence: NO tolerance/withdrawal means NO dependence Motivation to avoid/end withdrawal symptoms is Motivation primary primary cause of addiction, BUT: Some Some drugs produce only mild withdrawal yet lead to dependence dependence (pleasurable effects) Many quitters make it thru withdrawal, but eventually start Many again again Other factors influence drug dependence M. Bassil PSYC 202 Depressants Decrease Decrease nervous system activity Alcohol: dampens NS by • GABA activity (main inhibitory neurotrans) GABA (main • Glutamate activity (major excitatory neurotrans) Glutamate (major • dopamine (neurotrans involved in pleasure) dopamine • Alcohol myopia (shortsighted thinking due to inability to (shortsighted pay pay attention as much as when sober) Barbiturates (e.g. Barbiturates (e.g. sleeping pills) & Tranquilizers (e.g. Tranquilizers e.g. antianxiety antianxiety drugs): depress NS by GABA activity GABA • Highly addictive; widely overused • Overdoses ► unconsciousness, or death Overdoses M. Bassil PSYC 202 29 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( 11/4/2009 Stimulants Increase neural firing & arouse NS (increase blood (increase pressure, heart rate, & alertness) Amphetamines ( appetite & fatigue): dopamine & Amphetamines dopamine norepinephrine activity ► crash when stopped Cocaine ( muscular strength, excitation, & euphoria): Cocaine norepinephrine & dopamine by blocking reuptake; large dose ► vomiting, convulsions, & delusions; after cocaine vomiting, high ► depressive crash; chronic...
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This document was uploaded on 01/15/2014.

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