Ch4_ppt_-_Brain_and_Behavior_Compatibility_Mode_

Deactivation through reuptake or deactivation

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Unformatted text preview: ive potential negative may prevent postsynaptic neuron may from firing even if receiving excitatory excitatory stimulation from others 5. Deactivation through reuptake or Deactivation breakdown: balancing breakdown: balancing the effects of the neurotransmitter effects Binding continues until neuron is deactivated by: deactivated 1. Other Chemicals (in in synaptic synaptic space) OR 2. Reuptake: transmitter transmitter molecules are taken back into presynaptic axon terminals (e.g. antidepressants inhibit reuptake reuptake of serotonin) 26 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 10/28/2009 Specialized Specialized Transmitter Systems Different Different brain systems sensitive to only certain messages (immune to cross talk from other systems) (immune Transmitter molecules are of different shapes Different Different neurotransmitters may coexist within same same axon terminal or at synapse Each Each can have excitatory and/or inhibitory effect on certain neurons (complexity) (complexity) e.g. e.g. Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA, Endorphins Endorphins Specialized Specialized Transmitter Systems Example: Example: Acetylcholine (ACh): an excitatory neurotransmitter an involved involved in muscle activity & memory Underproduction Alzheimer’s disease Overproduction convulsions; Absence paralysis convulsions; Absence Drugs Drugs that block ACh action prevent muscle activation & cause cause paralysis: e.g. Botulism Botulism (food poisoning from improperly improperly canned food) fatal paralysis. fatal OR OR the milder Botox!! Black Black widow spider (or terrorist gas) uncontrolled seizures & convulsions 27 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 10/28/2009 Specialized Specialized Transmitter Systems Most Most neurotransmitters have effect on specific neurons that that have receptors for them. Others… Neuromodulators: have more widespread & generalized influence influence on synaptic transmission e.g. Endorphins inhibit e.g. Endorphins: inhibit pain transmission while enhancing enhancing neural activity for pleasurable feelings Psychoactive drugs: chemicals that chemicals produce alterations in consciousness, emotion, emotion, & behavior The Nervous System The body’s control center 3 major types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons: carry input messages from sense organs to to spinal cord & brain 2. Motor neurons: transmit output impulses from brain & spinal spinal cord to muscles & organs 3. Interneurons: perform connective or associative functions within within the nervous system complexity of higher mental functions, emotions, & complexity behaviors behaviors 28 Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) 10/28/2009 Peripheral Nervous System (Contains all the neural structures that lie outside brain and spinal cord (Input and output functions – sensing & responding)) Somatic Nervous System (sensory neurons transmit messages from sensory receptors & motor...
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