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Updated+chapter+11 - Pragmatics Pragmatics the study of...

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Pragmatics
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Pragmatics: the study of intended meaning - when there is something more to or something different from the literal meaning is conveyed, and we explain those situations using pragmatics.
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Pragmatics tends to focus on what Yule calls “invisible” meaning – how we recognize what is meant even when it isn’t actually said or written. r Assumptions and expectations that are shared by speakers and listeners and by writers and readers are an important aspect of pragmatics.
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Parking sign- r You might see this sign in a city like New York or Chicago. You would know that it means heated parking garage and not heated attendants.
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Newspaper ad- r The meaning is that this store is having a sale on baby clothes, not that it is selling babies (the literal meaning of the words in the ad).
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We rely on linguistic context to figure out the meaning when there is less situational and physical context. r Linguistic context is also known as co-text. r Co-text: the other words used in phrases or sentences that help determine the meaning of the word in a question.
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“I’m going to the bank to cash a check.” “I’m going to the bank to do some fishing.”
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Words that cannot be interpreted at all unless the physical context, especially the physical context of the speaker is known. r Greek word meaning “pointing” (thru language).
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Place (spatial) deixis: pointing to a location - here, there r Time deixis (temporal): pointing to a time - now, then, tomorrow, last month r Person deixis: pointing to a person - Pronouns = I, you, he, she, it, him, her, we, they, them, etc…
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Some more deictic distinctions in English: r This, these, here – refer to things that are close to the speaker r That, those, there – refer to things that are further away from the speaker. r “Come” indicates movement toward the speaker’s location (come here) and “go” indicates movement away from the speaker’s location (there she goes).
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“You’ll have to bring that back tomorrow, because they aren’t here now.” r Well-formed sentence but meaningless when taken out of context because it contains so many deictic terms.
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Reference: an act by which a speaker or writer uses language to enable a listener or reader to identify something.
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Inference: the listener’s use of additional information to connect what is said to what must be meant.
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