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Biochemistry_Final_Exam_Study_Guide[1]

Biochemistry_Final_Exam_Study_Guide[1] - Biochemistry Final...

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Biochemistry Final Exam Study Guide Glycolysis o Catabolic o Occurs in the cytoplasm of any cell o Begins with glucose o Ends with 2 molecules of pyruvate o Energy produced = 4 raw ATP; Energy needed = 2 ATP (thus a net of 2) o NADH needed = 0; NADH produced = 2 molecules o FADH 2 needed = 0; FADH 2 produced = 0 o NADPH needed = 0; NADPH produced = 0 o What happens in the cycle? Glucose (6C) is broken down ending in 2 molecules of Pyruvate (3C each). The purpose of the cycle is to generate energy. Krebs Cycle o Catabolic when done in its entirety o Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria o Begins with acetyl CO-A o Ends with Carbon Dioxide, Energy, and Electrons o Energy produced per acetyl CO-A= 1 GTP (same as ATP); Energy needed= 0 ATP o NADH needed = 0; NADH produced = 3 molecules o FADH 2 needed = 0; FADH 2 produced = 1 o NADPH needed = 0; NADPH produced = 0 o What happens in the cycle? Acetyl CO-A is oxidized in order to produce energy. Electron Transport System o Is neither anabolic nor catabolic o Occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane o Begins with either NADH or FADH 2 o Ends with the production of ATP via Hydrogens being pumped o The amount of energy produced depends on the beginning material (NADH = 3 ATP; FADH 2 = 2 ATP); Energy needed = 0 o What happens in the cycle? NADH FADH 2 Gluconeogenesis o Anabolic o Occurs in the cytoplasm of the LIVER o Begins with pyruvate or sometimes lactate o Ends with glucose o Energy produced = 0; ATP needed = 6 o NADH needed = 2 molecules o What happens in the cycle? Glucose is produced from pyruvate. This cycle is the backwards run of glycolysis, with the exception of needed 4 different enzymes to work. 1* 2 U 3* C 4* O 2
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Pentose Shunt o Anabolic o Occurs in the cytoplasm o Begins with glucose 6 phosphate o Ends with pentose sugars o ATP needed= 0; ATP produced = 0 o NADH needed = 0; NADH produced = 0 o NADPH produced = 2 o What happens in this cycle? Glucose 6 phosphate is converted into ribulose 5 phospate (producing NADPH), and then converted into intermediates which can be used to make DNA/RNA Pyruvate to Acetyl CO-A o Requires aerobic conditions o Produces 2 molecules of NADH Photosynthesis o Anabolic o Occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells o Begins with CO2, H2O, and energy o Ends with O2 and carbohydrates o ATP & NADPH are produced in the 1 st part o What happens in this cycle? Sunlight hits the chlorophyll and electrons are bounced out. Electrons are then captured by NADP, and ATP as well as NADPH are produced. H2O is split in order to replace the electrons that were lost, and O2 is released as a by-product. Beta Oxidation o Catabolic o Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria o Begins with long chains of fatty acids o Ends with acetyl CO-A that can be used for energy o Energy produced= 0 until the acetyl CO-A is run through the Krebs each pass = 17 ATP total after Krebs and ETS are run (12 from acetyl CO-A ATP; 2 ATP from 1 FADH2, and 3 from 1 NADH) o Energy needed = 0 o
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