Midterm Essay 2 - Essay 2 One reason we have been looking...

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Essay 2: One reason we have been looking at history in this class has been to help us put some of China’s geo-political conflicts and tensions into historical perspective. On the most basic level, the point has been made repeatedly that our ideas of what constitutes sovereignty today differ in many ways from how sovereignty was conceived in earlier centuries in East Asia. In other words, many problems arose from the 19th century on when the Qing dynasty’s ways of understanding sovereignty (ways that were also well-understood by its subjects and its various neighbors) came into conflict with modern Western ideas of sovereignty. Explain two or three such basic conceptual differences between the forms of sovereignty implemented by the Qing empire and those maintained by modern nation-states and give at least one example in each case of how these differences in understanding were related to specific political conflicts or tensions China faced in the 19th and/or 20th centuries. Version 1Sovereignty is defined as: quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area such as a territory. Qing dynasty’s idea of sovereignty oChina is too big to conquer oBureaucracy Civil service exam Everyone is educated the same this is how China was able to be one strong nation even though it is very large national mobilization Nationalism (everyone working together) Too big to conquer Japan was the last group to try to conquer China Too fragile for political experiement Tired of constant changes oChina never had to worry about its own sovereignty because of its size and structured system oWestern influence was a threat to their sovereignty Western idea of sovereignty in China oIntroduced modern technology (weapons and guns which changed warfare) ointroduced treaties oChina kept to itself until west introduced idea of trade Examples of conflicts that occurred from different ideas of sovereignty oOpium War caused by trade imbalance Hong Canton System of Trade Chinese>Hong<Western oPaid for right to be the middle man
There was opium in the 1600s Trade goes up because theres more of it Chinese weren’t interested in Industrial goods so decided to increase opium Officials were getting addicted to opium so China saw this as a problem Lin Zexu Sent to deal with opium problem in Canton Legalize it? Or stop it. He wanted to stop it Users or dealers were responsible? Dealers oSent a letter to Queen Victoria saying China did not want the opium oDug a ditch and washed the opium out to sea Said that China supports FREE TRADE oSo said that Lin Zexu stole their opium THUS the opium war 1839-1841 CHINA LOST oConsequences Trade ports able to trade freely Hong Kong becomes a British colony Concession Able to do what they wanted in these areas oOpium War II Arrow War 1857-1858Britain and France(Opium war II)

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