Gross_Anatomy_Lecture_1_Exam[1]

Gross_Anatomy_Lecture_1_Exam[1] - The Back Vertebral Column...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Back Vertebral Column The vertebral column extends from the cranium (skull) to the apex of the coccyx & forms the skeleton of the neck and back Its main function is protection (of the spinal cord & its nerves), but also supports the weight of the body above the level of the pelvis Each vertebrae is separated by inter-vertebral discs. Zygapophysial joints are located in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions to facilitate and control the vertebral column’s flexibility Curvatures of the Vertebral Column There are 4 curvatures in the adult spine. They are located in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. o The thoracic and sacral curvatures are referred to as kyphotic curves (concave anteriorly) These are primary curves and develop while in the womb o The cervical and lumbar curvatures are referred to as lordotic curves (convex anteriorly) These are secondary and develop around the 3 rd month of infancy The lumbar curve is generally more pronounced in females, and ends at the lumbosacral angle which is the junction of the L5 and the sacrum. The curvatures of the spine provide additional flexibility, as well as shock-absorbing resilience. Abnormal Curvatures of the Vertebral Column Osteoporosis is the demineralization of the bones caused by a disruption of the normal balance of calcium deposition and resorption. The bones are weakened and become brittle. An excess thoracic kyphosis (humpback) is characterized by an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature; the vertebral column curves posteriorly. o This can lead to a loss of height due to the collapse of the vertebrae. An excess lumbar lordosis (hollowback) is characterized by an anterior rotation of the pelvis at the hip joints producing an abnormal increase in the lumbar curvature. o This often occurs during late pregnancy due to the weakening of the abdominal muscles, as well as loss of the normal line of gravity. Scoliosis is characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae. The spinous processes turn toward the cavity of the abnormal curvature. o This is the most common deformity in prepubescent females Structure and Function of Vertebrae A typical vertebrae consists of a vertebral body, vertebral arch, and seven processes o The vertebral body gives strength to the vertebral column and supports the weight. Most vertebral bodies are covered in hyaline cartilage, which are remnants of the cartilaginous model from which the bone develops, except at the periphery where there is a ring of smooth bone the epiphysial rim. o
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 11

Gross_Anatomy_Lecture_1_Exam[1] - The Back Vertebral Column...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online