2020 Facing stereotypes- ERP responses to male and female faces after gender-stereotyped statements.

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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2020, 928–940doi:10.1093/scan/nsaa117Advance Access Publication Date: 9 September 2020Original ManuscriptFacing stereotypes: ERP responses to male and femalefaces after gender-stereotyped statementsPablo Rodríguez-Gómez1,2, Verónica Romero-Ferreiro1,3, Miguel A. Pozo1,José Antonio Hinojosa1,2,4and Eva M. Moreno1,31Human Brain Mapping Unit, Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain,2Department of Experimental Psychology, Cognitive Processes and Speech Therapy, Universidad Complutensede Madrid, Spain,3Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Network CIBERSAM, Spain and4Languagesand Education Department, Universidad de Nebrija, Madrid, SpainCorrespondence should be addressed to Eva M. Moreno, Human Brain Mapping Unit, Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,Paseo Juan XXIII 1, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Tel:+34 91 394 32 61; Fax:+34 91 394 32 64; E-mail:[email protected]AbstractDespite gender is a salient feature in face recognition, the question of whether stereotyping modulates face processingremains unexplored. Event-related potentials from 40 participants (20 female) was recorded as male and female facesmatched or mismatched previous gender-stereotyped statements and were compared with those elicited by faces precededby gender-unbiased statements. We conducted linear mixed-effects models to account for possible random effects from bothparticipants and the strength of the gender bias. The amplitude of the N170 to faces was larger following stereotyped rel-ative to gender-unbiased statements in both male and female participants, although the effect was larger for males. Thisresult reveals that stereotyping exerts an early effect in face processing and that the impact is higher in men. In latertime windows, male faces after female-stereotyped statements elicited large late positivity potential (LPP) responses in bothmen and women, indicating that the violation of male stereotypes induces a post-perceptual reevaluation of a salient orconflicting event. Besides, the largest LPP amplitude in women was elicited when they encountered a female face after afemale-stereotyped statement. The later result is discussed from the perspective of recent claims on the evolution of womenself-identification with traditionally held female roles.Key words:event-related potentials (ERPs); face processing; gender stereotypes; N170; LPPIntroductionStereotypes in general reflect expectations about members of aparticular social group. Specifically, gender stereotypes relate tothose characteristics, preferences and ambitions of women andmen and that may or may not fit actual social group differences.Contemporary social interactions are often influenced by stereo-types of masculine roles traditionally linked to professionalachievement and competition and feminine roles of empathyand family member care-givers (Noseket al., 2002). Since gen-der is a primary feature in other’s recognition, its immediacy,

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