Unformatted text preview: an be completed every cycle. Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . .
Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 6 Growth of Processors
Language of the Machine
We’ll be working with the
MIPS instruction set
– similar to other
developed since the
– Almost 100 million
manufactured in 2002
– used by NEC, Nintendo,
Graphics, Sony, …
1300 Other 1200 SPARC
Hitachi SH 1100 PowerPC 1000 Motorola 68K
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . .
Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 7 MIPS Instruction Set (RISC)
Instructions execute simple functions.
Maintain regularity of format – each
instruction is one word, contains opcode and
Minimize memory accesses – whenever
possible use registers as arguments.
Three types of instructions:
Register (R)-type – only registers as arguments.
Immediate (I)-type – arguments are registers and
numbers (constants or memory addresses).
Jump (J)-type – argument is an address.
Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . .
Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 8 MIPS Arithmetic Instructions
All instructions have 3 operands
Operand order is fixed (destination first)
code: a = b + c; MIPS ‘code’: add a, b, c “The natural number of operands for an operation like addition is
three… requiring every instruction to have exactly three
operands conforms to the philosophy of keeping the hardware
2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . .
Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 9 Arithmetic Instr. (Continued)
Design Principle: simplicity favors regularity.
Of course this complicates some things...
C code: a = b + c + d; MIPS code: add a, b, c
add a, a, d
Operands must be registers (why?) Remember von
32 registers provided
2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers
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- Spring '14
- Computer Architecture, Processor register, MIPS architecture, Machine code, Morgan Kaufman Publishers