Spring 2013 jan 25 spring elec 5200 0016200 001

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Unformatted text preview: an be completed every cycle. Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . . Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 6 Growth of Processors Language of the Machine We’ll be working with the We’ll MIPS instruction set architecture architecture – similar to other similar architectures developed since the 1980's 1980's – Almost 100 million Almost MIPS processors manufactured in 2002 manufactured – used by NEC, Nintendo, used Cisco, Silicon Graphics, Sony, … Graphics, 1400 1300 Other 1200 SPARC Hitachi SH 1100 PowerPC 1000 Motorola 68K MIPS 900 800 IA-32 ARM 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . . Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 7 MIPS Instruction Set (RISC) Instructions execute simple functions. Maintain regularity of format – each Maintain instruction is one word, contains opcode and opcode arguments. arguments Minimize memory accesses – whenever Minimize possible use registers as arguments. possible Three types of instructions: Register (R)-type – only registers as arguments. Immediate (I)-type – arguments are registers and Immediate numbers (constants or memory addresses). numbers Jump (J)-type – argument is an address. Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . . Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 8 MIPS Arithmetic Instructions All instructions have 3 operands Operand order is fixed (destination first) Example: C code: code: a = b + c; MIPS ‘code’: add a, b, c “The natural number of operands for an operation like addition is three… requiring every instruction to have exactly three operands conforms to the philosophy of keeping the hardware simple” simple” 2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers Spring 2013, Jan 25 . . . Spring ELEC 5200-001/6200-001 Lecture 3 9 Arithmetic Instr. (Continued) Design Principle: simplicity favors regularity. Design Of course this complicates some things... Of C code: a = b + c + d; MIPS code: add a, b, c add a, a, d Operands must be registers (why?) Remember von Operands Neumann bottleneck. Neumann 32 registers provided 2004 © Morgan Kaufman Publishers Each...
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This document was uploaded on 01/17/2014.

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