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Unformatted text preview: ygdala is
important as well. This is where the OBF comes in, appears to be the main arbiter of these
emotions and bodily responses. It is important in determining what information/ modulating it.
Damage to the OBF causes ﬂattening of emotions, but also show inappropriate emotions Amygdala damage versus Orbitofrontal damage
Amygdala damage (red) can
lead to problems in learned
associations between emotions
and stimuli – fear conditioning. Orbitofrontal damage (yellow) can also lead to a flattening of affect
and/or inability to regulate and modulate emotional responses. Orbitofrontal Cortex: inhibitory control & emotional regulation!
Somatic Marker Hypothesis!
Emotional responses or processes that
help to guide decision-making! The !
Somatic Marker Hypothesis: A lot of decisions we make have an emotional
component to it. Emotions actually help us in making good decisions.
OBF incorporates those learned associates w/ the choices that it has to make.
The Iowa Gambling Task = has 2 decks of cards to choose from, and each card
either gives a pay off or loss. One deck has small payoffs, but also small losses
(it takes a long time but will get more money than the other deck). The other
deck has large pay-offs but huge losses, thus do not build up a huge pot.
Found when done w/ amydgala damage patients, they kept w/ deck B even
though led to losses. Its almost that they didn't adjust or change their behavior in
response to those losses. This is a big part of problems Phineas Gage had, so
acted inappropriate, made risky decisions, and was unable to modulate his
actions in the appropriate ways. Phineas Gage! Disconnections in the pathways between
the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex! The limbic system amygdala
orbitofrontal cortex Activity from the amygdala can modulate memory! “The susceptibility of memory consolidation to modulating
inﬂuences occurring after learning episodes enables
neurobiological processes activated by emotional arousal t...
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- Fall '11