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Unformatted text preview: ve a mix of symptoms
4) A large part of individual variability in the localization of language, as shown in the Ojemann study, by fMRI and EEG, show alot of variability between patients. And these methods must average
across the patient's. The classical theory makes sense but doesn't exactly describe what is going on. Another thing, is that recent neuroscientiﬁc has shown that it isn't just a matter of these cortical areas, its a matter of the cells bodies that are in broca's area, and wernicke's area, it really
a matter of the pathway, and how these areas are connected, rather than exactly where they are in the brain. The pattern of connectivity within this region is quite variable, and get a very
different pattern depending on which cortical area is activated. It could be that language is not so much the evolution of broca's area, or wernicke's area, but the evolution of the pathways
that extend from these areas. Classic Models of Language Processing! If you compare a cat brain, or a monkey
brain, to a human brain, they all have these
classic wernickes/broca/argulate area, but
don't have language. But they don't have the
extensive pathway that is extending
between these areas to the cortex.
Read about the origin of language in the
book. The Origin of Language! Indirect evidence suggests that language ﬁrst emerged in Homo Sapiens sometime
between 50,000 and 200,000 years ago, and that modern behavior (which emerged around
50,000 years ago) may have been dependent on the evolution of language.! The Origin of Language!
According to the book of Genesis, God punished man for the
construction of the Tower of Babel by inﬂicting the confusion of
tongues, that is, creating a variety of languages so that everybody
could not understand each other. ! Rene Descartes considered “that language allowed such freedom of
expression that it could not be reduced to mechanical principles,
conﬁrming for him, at least, that it must indeed be Godgiven.” (Corballis, 2009, page 1) ! Noam Chomsky argued that language was so specialized that it could not
have evolved gradually from other systems, that it must have arisen
suddenly through a single mutation; “we know very little about what
happens when 1010 neurons are crammed into something the size of a
basketball, with further conditions imposed by the speciﬁc manner in
which this system developed over time. It would be a serious error to
suppose that all properties, or the interesting structures that evolved, can
be ‘explained’ in terms of natural selection.” (Chomsky, 1975, page 59).! The Origin of Language!
The Gestural Theory of Language!
Michael Corballis, University of Auckland! - Gestural and vocal language depend on similar
neural systems, e.g., the mirror neuron system. !
- Nonhuman primates can use gestures and
symbols for primitive communication. ! - Deaf patients that use sign language and that have lesions to their left hemisphere in the same
locations as verbal aphasic patients will show the same symptoms in the loss of signing as
other aphasic patients do with the use of speech.! The theory suggests that gestures evolved to vocalizations in order to free up the
hands to work with tools and to communicate over long distances when gestures
might not been seen. !...
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- Fall '11