Unformatted text preview: quentialists?! Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning !
V.P. The Patients
ID sex hand age IQ country surgery year type J.W. M R 54 96 USA full 1979 2-stage,
posterior first V.P. F R 55 91 USA full 1980 2-stage,
anterior first D.D.V. M R 44 81 Italy full 1986 2-stage,
anterior first O.T. M R 50 80 Italy partial 1995 2/3 anterior A.P. M R 43 90 Italy partial 1993 3/4 anterior P.F. M R 24 ?? Italy partial 2008 1/3 central All had posterior section removed, and the posterior section it turns out is important for connecting right TPL with
the left hemisphere. Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning !
V.P. Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning !
consistent inconsistent normal
subjects 94% (1%) 72% (4%) split-brain
patients 83% (3%) 31% (5%) When belief and outcome were inconsistent, normal subjects would go with the belief
72% of the time. The split brain patients would go with the belief only 31% of the time.
Two of the split-brain patients were completely consequentialists.
Wouldn't take belief/intention into consideration until after. Strange ﬁnding b/c they
aren't going out in the world and making morally wrong decisions; one of the things we
noticed was that these judgments they had to make were right after the scenario, and
very quickly. Afterwards, both joe and vicky would rationalize why they made that
judgment, almost like they were making an excuse for going w/ the outcome. If given
enough time, they could ﬁgure out what the appropriate answer would be, but their
initial response was based on the outcome. Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning ! The interpreter at work as well in the left hemisphere:!
After hearing a scenario in which the waitress knowingly serves sesame seeds to
somebody she believes is highly allergic to them, yet the outcome was positive
because the person turned out not to be allergic, J.W. judged the action to be
permissible. ! However, moments later he appeared to rationalize his response by suggesting that
the “sesame seeds are just little, tiny things - not going to hurt a lot.”! What they think is happening, is the right TPJ is a specialized mechanism for belief attributions, that something that happens very quickly. A sort of initial estimation -what is the intention of this person -- whether they are intending to do harm or not. Could be very useful for social interactions. There is a 2nd process that is slower,
more deliberate, when you think things through. It is this 2nd process that is probably more intact in the left hemisphere, but its this initial judgment that they are thrown
off. Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning !
The interpreter at work as well in the left hemisphere:!
Maggie is a new employee at a small sky diving company. Her ﬁrst customer weighs
200 pounds. She has just opened a new batch of parachutes.!
The parachutes are faulty and should be discarded immediately. They won’t be able
to support anyone heavier than 100 pounds. !
Maggie gives the 200 pound customer a new parachute. He uses the new parachute,
and it cannot hold his weight. He hits the ground way too fast and dies. !
Before she gave out the new parachute, Maggie had received assurances from her
supervisor. So Maggie believed that the new parachutes were well-made and could
bring all her customers to a safe landing.!
Giving her customer a new parachute was: permissible or forbidden?!
The the outcome was negative (O-), but the agent’s belief
and intention was positive (B+).!
Vicky said it was morally forbidden, even though Maggie had no intention of
hurting anyone at all. Specialized Brain Mechanisms for Theory of Mind & Moral Reasoning ! Patient V.P.’s discussion of the parachute judgment:!...
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