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Journey into the Small Intestine 2014

Leptin ghrelin small peptide hormone released by the

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Unformatted text preview: e re-uptake of bile acids in ileum (results?) – Additional consequences: • Heart • Eyes (retina) Eyes • Treatment = Treatment – – – 250 μg/day supplement to cats or small dog 250 500 μg/day supplement to medium dog 500 1000 μg/day supplement to large, giant breeds of dogs 1000 Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy Central Retinal Degeneration Central Appetite control: Appetite Ghrelin vs. Leptin • Ghrelin: – Small peptide hormone released by the stomach before a meal – Targets: • Hypothalamus – induce hunger signals • Stomach smooth muscle – increase motility & emptying – Effects: short-lived increase in hunger – Human obesity – ghrelin levels ↓ ↓ Appetite control: Appetite Ghrelin vs. Leptin • Leptin: – Protein hormone produced by ADIPOSE, mammary, and stomach tissues – Receptors for leptin in HYPOTHALAMUS, stomach, liver, skeletal muscle – Effect in brain and through VAGUS NERVE to ↓ hunger long-term ↓ Appetite control: Appetite Ghrelin vs. Leptin • Leptin (continued): ↑↑ metabolic rate & fatty acid use by ↑↑ liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria use – Human obesity - ↑↑ leptin BUT tissues are resistant/don’t respond to signal (animal ex = receptor mutation in OB mice and rats) Positive mediators Negative Negative mediators Negative mediator Ghrelin vs, Leptin In humans http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d oi/10.1111/j.1467789X.2006.00270.x/full Pharmacological use of ghrelin, leptin?...
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