Under these conditions it becomes necessary if full

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Unformatted text preview: rol equation (8.93) for a regulator u ˆ (r À Kx) when r ˆ 0 u ˆ ÀKx (8:124) Equations (8.124) requires that all state variables must be measured. In practice this may not happen for a number of reasons including cost, or that the state may not physically be measurable. Under these conditions it becomes necessary, if full state feedback is required, to observe, or estimate the state variables. A full-order state observer estimates all of the system state variables. If, however, some of the state variables are measured, it may only be necessary to estimate a few of them. This is referred to as a reduced-order state observer. All observers use some ” form of mathematical model to produce an estimate x of the actual state vector x. Figure 8.8 shows a simple arrangement of a full-order state observer. In Figure 8.8, since the observer dynamics will never exactly equal the system ” dynamics, this open-loop arrangement means that x and x will gradually diverge. If however, an output vector ” is esti...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2014 for the course MECH 108 taught by Professor Sali mon during the Winter '12 term at Bingham University.

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