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Unformatted text preview: rol equation (8.93) for a regulator
u (r À Kx)
when r 0
u ÀKx (8:124) Equations (8.124) requires that all state variables must be measured. In practice this
may not happen for a number of reasons including cost, or that the state may not
physically be measurable. Under these conditions it becomes necessary, if full state
feedback is required, to observe, or estimate the state variables.
A fullorder state observer estimates all of the system state variables. If, however,
some of the state variables are measured, it may only be necessary to estimate a few
of them. This is referred to as a reducedorder state observer. All observers use some
form of mathematical model to produce an estimate x of the actual state vector x.
Figure 8.8 shows a simple arrangement of a fullorder state observer.
In Figure 8.8, since the observer dynamics will never exactly equal the system
dynamics, this openloop arrangement means that x and x will gradually diverge. If
however, an output vector is esti...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2014 for the course MECH 108 taught by Professor Sali mon during the Winter '12 term at Bingham University.
 Winter '12
 Sali mon

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