Geological Catastrophes Midterm Study Guide

Geological Catastrophes Midterm Study Guide - Geological...

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Geological Catastrophes Midterm Study Guide!!!! Magnitude: an assessment of the size of an event. Magnitude scales exist for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and tornadoes. For earthquakes, different magnitudes are calculated for the same earthquake when different types of seismic waves are used. Seismic Moment: a measure of earthquake size that involves amount of movement on the fault, the shear strength of the rocks, and the area of fault rupture. There are thrust earthquakes in Santa Barbara because there is a large fault that runs through SB.SB is also directly on top of a hanging wall. The sequence that seismic waves arrive from the hypocenter of an earthquake is primary wave (p wave), secondary wave (s wave) and finally surface waves (love and Rayleigh waves) arrive last. The second largest known earthquake (Sumatra) is a result of a collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. Epicenter: the point on the surface of the Earth directly above a fault movement (i.e., earthquake location) Hypocenter: The initial portion of a fault that moved to generate an earthquake. Hypocenters are below the ground surface, whereas epicenters are placed above them on the surface. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault. The 1999 Izmit earthquake was a result of a rupture on the North Anatolian Fault. SB is on the pacific plate!
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Geological Catastrophes Midterm Study Guide - Geological...

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