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Unformatted text preview: - A.L. Bowley
Statistics may be called the science of counting in one of the
departments due to Bowley, obviously this is an incomplete
definition as it takes into account only the aspect of collection and
ignores other aspects such as analysis, presentation and
Bowley gives another definition for statistics, which states
‘ statistics may be rightly called the scheme of averages’ . This
definition is also incomplete, as averages play an important role in
understanding and comparing data and statistics provide more
1.4.2 Definition by Croxton and Cowden:
Statistics may be defined as the science of collection,
presentation analysis and interpretation of numerical data from the
logical analysis. It is clear that the definition of statistics by
Croxton and Cowden is the most scientific and realistic one.
According to this definition there are four stages:
1. Collection of Data: It is the first step and this is the foundation
upon which the entire data set. Careful planning is essential before
collecting the data. There are different methods of collection of
2 data such as census, sampling, primary, secondary, etc., and the
investigator should make use of correct method.
2. Presentation of data: The mass data collected should be
presented in a suitable, concise form for further analysis. The
collected data may be presented in the form of tabular or
diagrammatic or graphic form.
3. Analysis of data: The data presented should be carefully
analysed for making inference from the presented data such as
measures of central tendencies, dispersion, correlation, regression
4. Interpretation of data: The final step is drawing conclusion
from the data collected. A valid conclusion must be drawn on the
basis of analysis. A high degree of skill and experience is necessary
for the interpretation.
1.4.3 Definition by Horace Secrist:
Statistics may be defined as the aggregate of facts affected
to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically
expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable
standard of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner, for a
predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each ot...
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- Winter '08