al bowley statistics may be called the science of

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Unformatted text preview: - A.L. Bowley Statistics may be called the science of counting in one of the departments due to Bowley, obviously this is an incomplete definition as it takes into account only the aspect of collection and ignores other aspects such as analysis, presentation and interpretation. Bowley gives another definition for statistics, which states ‘ statistics may be rightly called the scheme of averages’ . This definition is also incomplete, as averages play an important role in understanding and comparing data and statistics provide more measures. 1.4.2 Definition by Croxton and Cowden: Statistics may be defined as the science of collection, presentation analysis and interpretation of numerical data from the logical analysis. It is clear that the definition of statistics by Croxton and Cowden is the most scientific and realistic one. According to this definition there are four stages: 1. Collection of Data: It is the first step and this is the foundation upon which the entire data set. Careful planning is essential before collecting the data. There are different methods of collection of 2 data such as census, sampling, primary, secondary, etc., and the investigator should make use of correct method. 2. Presentation of data: The mass data collected should be presented in a suitable, concise form for further analysis. The collected data may be presented in the form of tabular or diagrammatic or graphic form. 3. Analysis of data: The data presented should be carefully analysed for making inference from the presented data such as measures of central tendencies, dispersion, correlation, regression etc., 4. Interpretation of data: The final step is drawing conclusion from the data collected. A valid conclusion must be drawn on the basis of analysis. A high degree of skill and experience is necessary for the interpretation. 1.4.3 Definition by Horace Secrist: Statistics may be defined as the aggregate of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner, for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each ot...
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