bus-stat-book1

Calculate mode from the following data income 10 20

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Unformatted text preview: (c) 3. (a) 7. (d) 11. (a) 15. (b) 4. (b) 8. (b) 12. (c) II 16. 5 19. Open end n + 1 17 2 20 75th 18. 0 and negative III 26. 130 27. 13.13 28. 35 29. 44.1 30. 12 31. 44 32. 170 33. 16 34 2542 35. 34 36. G.M.= 45.27 37. 142.5 mm 38. Rs.14.63 39. MD= 18 40.51.42 41. 34 42. 57.3 43.Q1=30.714;Q2=49.44; MD=41.11;D6=44.44;P20=27.5 44. MD=125.08; Q1=114.18; Q3=135.45 45 Mode=71.34 140 7. MEASURES OF DISPERSION – SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS 7.1 Introduction : The measure of central tendency serve to locate the center of the distribution, but they do not reveal how the items are spread out on either side of the center. This characteristic of a frequency distribution is commonly referred to as dispersion. In a series all the items are not equal. There is difference or variation among the values. The degree of variation is evaluated by various measures of dispersion. Small dispersion indicates high uniformity of the items, while large dispersion indicates less uniformity. For example consider the following marks of two students. Student I Student II 68 85 75 90 65 80 67 25 70 65 Both have got a total of 345 and an average of 69 each. The fact is that the second student has failed in one paper. When the averages alone are considered, the two students are equal. But first student has less variation than second student. Less variation is a desirable characteristic. Characteristics of a good measure of dispersion: An ideal measure of dispersion is expected to possess the following properties 1.It should be rigidly defined 2. It should be based on all the items. 3. It should not be unduly affected by extreme items. 141 4. It should lend itself for algebraic manipulation. 5. It should be simple to understand and easy to calculate 7.2 Absolute and Relative Measures : There are two kinds of measures of dispersion, namely 1.Absolute measure of dispersion 2.Relative measure of dispersion. Absolute measure of dispersion indicates the amount of variation in a set of values in terms of units of observations. For example, when rainfalls on different days are available in mm, any absol...
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