The second step is to draw a circle of appropriate

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Unformatted text preview: ith a compass. The size of the radius depends upon the available space and other factors of presentation. The third step is to measure points on the circle and representing the size of each sector with the help of a protractor. Example 8: Draw a Pie diagram for the following data of production of sugar in quintals of various countries. 77 Production of Sugar (in quintals) 62 47 35 16 6 Country Cuba Australia India Japan Egypt Solution: The values are expressed in terms of degree as follows. Production of Sugar In Country In Degrees Quintals Cuba 62 134 Australia 47 102 India 35 76 Japan 16 35 Egypt 6 13 Total 166 360 Pie Diagram Cuba Australia India Japan Egypt 5.5.3 Three-dimensional diagrams: Three-dimensional diagrams, also known as volume diagram, consist of cubes, cylinders, spheres, etc. In such diagrams three things, namely length, width and height have to be taken into account. Of all the figures, making of cubes is easy. Side of a cube is drawn in proportion to the cube root of the magnitude of data. 78 Cubes of figures can be ascertained with the help of logarithms. The logarithm of the figures can be divided by 3 and the antilog of that value will be the cube-root. Example 9: Represent the following data by volume diagram. Category Number of Students Under graduate 64000 Post graduate 27000 Professionals 8000 Solution: The sides of cubes can be determined as follows Number of Side of Category Cube root students cube Undergraduate 64000 40 4 cm Postgraduate 27000 30 3 cm Professional 8000 20 2 cm 4 cm Undergraduate 3 cm Postgraduate 2 cm professional 5.5.4 Pictograms and Cartograms: Pictograms are not abstract presentation such as lines or bars but really depict the kind of data we are dealing with. Pictures are attractive and easy to comprehend and as such this method is particularly useful in presenting statistics to the layman. When Pictograms are used, data are represented through a pictorial symbol that is carefully selected. Cartograms or statistical maps are used to give quantitative informati...
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