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**Unformatted text preview: **firm’s action could be detrimental to the
firm’s value. By applying the techniques presented in this chapter to estimate the firm’s cost
of capital, the financial manager will improve the likelihood that the firm’s long-term decisions are consistent with the firm’s overall goal of maximizing stock price (owner wealth). REVIEW OF LEARNING GOALS
Understand the key assumptions that underlie
cost of capital, the basic concept of cost of capital, and the specific sources of capital that it
includes. The cost of capital is the rate of return
that a firm must earn on its investments to maintain
its market value and attract needed funds. It is
affected by business and financial risks, which are
assumed to be unchanged. To capture the interrelatedness of financing, a weighted average cost of capital should be used to find the expected average
future cost of funds over the long run. The specific
costs of the basic sources of capital (long-term debt,
preferred stock, retained earnings, and common
stock) can be calculated individually. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital
(WACC) and discuss the alternative weighting
schemes. The firm’s WACC reflects the expected
average future cost of funds over the long run. It
can be determined by combining the costs of specific types of capital after weighting each of them by
its proportion using historical book or market value
weights, or target book or market value weights.
The theoretically preferred approach uses target
weights based on market values. The key formula
for WACC is given in Table 11.4. Determine the cost of long-term debt and the
cost of preferred stock. The cost of long-term
debt is the after-tax cost today of raising long-term
funds through borrowing. Cost quotations, calculation (using either a trial-and-error technique or a financial calculator), or an approximation can be
used to find the before-tax cost of debt, which must
then be tax-adjusted. The cost of preferred stock is
the ratio of the preferred stock dividend to the
firm’s net proceeds from the sale of preferred stock.
The key formulas for the before- and after-tax cost
of debt and the cost of preferred stock are given in
Table 11.4. Describe the procedures used to determine
break points and the weighted marginal cost of
capital (WMCC). As the volume of total new financing increases, the costs of the various types of
financing will increase, raising the firm’s WACC.
The WMCC is the firm’s WACC associated with its
next dollar of total new financing. Break points represent the level of total new financing at which the
cost of one of the financing components rises, causing an upward shift in the WMCC. The general formula for break points is given in Table 11.4. The
WMCC schedule relates the WACC to each level of
total new financing. Calculate the cost of common stock equity and
convert it into the cost of retained earnings and
the cost of new issues of common stock. The cost of
common stock equity can be calculated by using the
constant-growth valuation (Gordon) model or the
CAPM. The cost of retained earnings is equal to the
cost of common stock equity. An adjustment in the
cost of common stock equity to reflect underpricing
and flotation costs is necessary to find the cost of
new issues of common stock. The key formulas for
the cost of common stock equity, the cost of re- Explain how the weighted marginal cost of capital (WMCC) can be used with the investment
opportunities schedule (IOS) to make the firm’s
financing/investment decisions. The IOS presents a
ranking of currently available investments from best
(highest return) to worst (lowest return). It is used
in combination with the WMCC to find the level of
financing/investment that maximizes owner wealth.
The firm accepts projects up to the point at which
the marginal return on its investment equals its
weighted marginal cost of capital. LG1 LG2 LG3 tained earnings, and the cost of new issues of common stock are given in Table 11.4.
LG4 LG5 LG6 492 PART 4 Long-Term Financial Decisions TABLE 11.4 Summary of Key Definitions and Formulas
for Cost of Capital Definitions of variables
AFj
b
BPj
D1
Dp
g
I
ka
kd
ki
km
kn
kp
kr
ks
n
Nd amount of funds available from financing
source j at a given cost
beta coefficient or measure of nondiversifiable risk
break point for financing source j
per share dividend expected at the end of
year 1
annual preferred stock dividend (in
dollars)
constant rate of growth in dividends
annual interest in dollars
weighted average cost of capital
before-tax cost of debt
after-tax cost of debt
required return on the market portfolio
cost of a new issue of common stock
cost of preferred stock
cost of retained earnings
required return on common stock
number of years to the bond’s maturity
net proceeds from the sale of debt
(bond) Nn net proceeds from the sale of new common
stock
net proceeds from the sale of preferred
stock
value of common stock
risk-free rate of return
firm’s tax rate
proportion of long-term debt in capital
structure
capital structure proportion (historical or
target, stated in decimal form) for financing
source j
proportion of preferred stock in capital
structure
proportion of common stock equity in
capital structure Np
P0
RF
T
wi
wj wp
ws Cost of capital formulas
Before-tax cost of debt (approximation): $1,000
n I
kd After-tax cost of debt: Nd
ki [Eq. 11.1] $1,000
2 kd...

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