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Chapter 4Motivation and ValuesCONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8eMichael Solomon
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-2Learning ObjectivesWhen you finish this chapter you should understand why:•It’s important for marketers to recognize that products can satisfy a range of consumer needs.•The way we evaluate and choose a product depends upon our degree of involvement with the product, the marketing message, and/or the purchase situation. •Our deeply held cultural values dictate the types of products and services we seek out or avoid.
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-3Learning Objectives (cont.)•Consumers vary in the importance they attach to worldly possessions, and this orientation in turn has an impact on their priorities and behaviors.
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-4The Motivation Process•Motivation: process that leads people to behave as they do•Also, the forces that drive us to buy/use products•Goal: consumer’s desired end state•Drive: degree of consumer arousal•Want: manifestation of consumer need•The ad shows desired state and suggests solution (purchase of equipment)Click image for
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-5Motivational StrengthMotivational strength: degree of willingness to expend energy to reach a goal•Drive theory: biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (e.g., hunger)•Expectancy theory: behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-6Types of NeedsTypes of needs:•Biogenic: biological needs, such as for air, water, food•Psychogenic: need for status, power, affiliation•Utilitarian: need for tangible attributes of a product, such as miles per gallon in a car or calories in a cheeseburger•Hedonic: needs for excitement, self-confidence, fantasy
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-7Motivational Conflicts•Goal valence (value): consumer will:•Approach positive goal•Avoid negative goal•Example: Partnership for a Drug-Free America communicates negative consequences of drug addiction for those tempted to startClick image for
Prentice-Hall, cr 20094-8Specific Needs and Buying BehaviorNEED FOR ACHIEVEMENTValue personal accomplishmentPlace a premium on products that signify success (luxury brands, technology products)NEED FOR AFFILIATIONWant to be with other peopleFocus on products that are used in groups (alcoholic beverages, sports bars)NEED FOR POWER