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Unformatted text preview: 192 Chapter 11 Properties of Gases This chapter and the next examine the physical properties of the states of matter. Gases are the most easily un-derstood, and many of the properties of gases are quite familiar to everyone. We will study the four variables that control gas behavior—pressure, volume, temperature, and amount (which we will measure in moles). These variables are interrelated, because one cannot be changed without changing one or more of the others. The relationships among them are expressed in the gas laws , which we describe in this chapter. We will also see how these laws can be explained in terms of a single theory, the kinetic theory of gases. Learning Objectives In this chapter, you should keep in mind the following goals. 1 To become aware of properties that characterize gases in general and how these proper-ties can be understood in terms of a molecular model of a gas. 2 To learn the units of pressure and how barometers and manometers work to measure pressure. 3 To learn how the pressure and the volume of a fixed amount of gas are interrelated at constant temperature (Boyle’s law). 4 To learn how the volume of a fixed amount of gas changes with temperature if the pres-sure is kept constant (Charles’ law). 5 To learn how the pressure of a fixed amount of gas changes with temperature if the vol-ume is kept constant (Gay-Lussac’s law). 6 To be able to carry out gas law calculations using the combined gas law. 7 To know the ideal gas law equation, the value of the universal gas constant, R , and to be able to use this law to do gas law calculations, including molecular mass calculations. 8 To be able to carry out stoichiometric calculations when some or all of the substances are gases. 9 To learn what partial pressure means, what the relationship is between the total pressure of a gas mixture and the partial pressures of the mixture's components, and how to find what pressure a wet gas would have if made dry. 10 To learn the definition of mole fraction and how to relate partial pressures to total pres-sure using mole fraction. 11 To learn how the rate of effusion of a gas is related to its density and molecular mass. 12 To learn the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases and the model for an ideal gas that these postulates describe. 13 To be able to explain the gas laws in terms of the kinetic model of gases. 14 To learn why real gases do not behave as an ideal gas and how van der Waals corrected the ideal gas law to make it fit real gases better. Chapter 11 193 11.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level Review The purpose of this section is to review familiar properties of gases and show that a very simple molecular model of this state of matter is able to explain gas behavior. Let’s review the list....
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