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Unformatted text preview: 213 Chapter 12 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids In Chapter 11 you learned about the physical properties of gases, and you saw that gas behavior is essentially independent of the chemical composition of the gas molecules. In this chapter we turn our attention to the other two states of matter, where attractions between molecules play a dominant role, and where physical properties are strongly affected by the chemical makeup of the particles. Learning Objectives Throughout your study of this chapter, keep in mind the following objectives: 1 To learn why the physical properties of liquids and solids depend so heavily on their chemical composition while the properties of gases do not. 2 To learn the nature and relative strengths of the principal kinds of intermolecular attrac-tions. You should also learn the factors that influence the strengths of intermolecular at-tractions. 3 To be able to use a Lewis structure and a predicted molecular geometry to anticipate the nature of the intermolecular attractions that exist in liquid and solid states of a substance 4 To learn some general properties of liquids and solids, and how these properties are re-lated to the closeness of packing of molecules and to intermolecular attractive forces. 5 To learn about the kinds of changes of state and to learn about the concept of dynamic equilibrium. 6 To learn about the factors that control the pressure that a vapor exerts when it is in equi-librium with a liquid or a solid. 7 To learn how boiling point is defined in scientific terms and the factors that influence the boiling point. 8 To be able to use the structures of molecules to compare physical properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point. 9 To examine the kinds of energy changes that accompany changes of state. 10 To be able to use energy changes associated with vaporization to compare the strengths of the intermolecular attractive forces in liquids. 11 To learn how we can predict the way that the composition of an equilibrium system is af-fected by outside influences that are able to upset the equilibrium. 12 To learn how the pressuretemperature relationships between the states of substances can be represented graphically. 214 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids 12.1 Gases, liquids, and solids differ because intermolecular forces depend on the distances between molecules Review Intermolecular attractions are attractions that exist between molecules. They are most significant when molecules are close together and are practically insignificant when molecules are far apart. In gases, the molecules hardly feel the intermolecular attractions at all because the particles are so widely spaced....
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