Chap_16 - Chapter 16 Chemical Equilibrium- General Concepts...

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286 Chapter 16 Chemical Equilibrium— General Concepts In Chapter 15 you learned the factors that determine how fast reactions are able to proceed. In this chapter we explore the fate of most chemical reactions, namely, dynamic equilibrium. For most reactions, the concentra- tions eventually level off at constant values, which are the equilibrium concentrations in the reaction mixture. The principles we develop here will be used in the next several chapters as we study equilibria in solu- tions of acids and bases and solubility equilibria. For this reason, it is important that you learn well the topics discussed here, especially how we use the balanced chemical equation to construct the equilibrium law for the reaction. Also, study carefully the approach to solving equilibrium problems. Learning Objectives As you study this chapter, keep in mind the following objectives. 1 To become totally familiar with the concept of dynamic equilibrium. 2 To learn how the composition of an equilibrium mixture is independent of where we be- gin along the path from reactants to products, provided that the overall composition of the system is the same each time. 3 To learn how to construct an equation called the equilibrium law that relates the equilib- rium concentrations of the reactants and products in a chemical system to a constant called the equilibrium constant, K c . 4 To learn how the equilibrium law for gaseous reactions can be written using partial pres- sures and related to an equilibrium constant K p . 5 To be able to use the magnitude of the equilibrium constant to make a qualitative esti- mate of the extent of reaction. 6 To learn how to convert between K p and K c for gaseous reactions. 7 To be able to write the equilibrium law for a heterogeneous reaction. 8 To learn how to apply Le Châtelier’s principle to chemical equilibria. You should be able to predict the effects of adding or removing a reactant or product, changing the volume of a gaseous reaction, changing the temperature, adding a catalyst, and adding an inert gas at constant volume. 9 To learn how to calculate K c from data related to equilibrium concentrations and to learn how to use the value of K c and initial concentrations to calculate equilibrium concentra- tions.
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Chapter 16 287 16.1 Dynamic equilibrium is achieved when the rates of two opposing processes are equal Review Equilibrium is established in a chemical system when the rate at which the reactants combine to form the “products” is equal to the rate at which the products react to form the “reactants.” We call it a dynamic equilibrium because the reaction hasn’t ceased; instead there are two opposing reactions occurring at equal rates. When equilibrium is reached in a chemical system, the concentrations of the reactants and products at- tain steady, constant values that do not change with time. Because the reaction is proceeding in both directions simultaneously, the terms reactants and products no longer have their usual meanings. Instead, we use the term reactants
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Bush during the Spring '07 term at UMBC.

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Chap_16 - Chapter 16 Chemical Equilibrium- General Concepts...

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