Chap_17 - Chapter 17 Acids and Bases: A Second Look This...

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302 Chapter 17 Acids and Bases: A Second Look This chapter continues our study, begun in Chapter 5, of acid–base reactions , which are among most common and important kinds of chemical reactions. Chemists most often use the Brønsted view of acids and bases, be- cause in the overwhelming majority of all acid–base reactions, proton–transfer occurs. However, many reac- tions with the look and feel of an acid–base reaction do not involve proton transfers but involve nothing more, in the Lewis view, than the formation of a coordinate covalent bond. The Brønsted view is nearly always used when working with aqueous solutions, but Brønsted acids (proton donors) vary widely in strength. We learn here how the periodic table and the concept of electronega- tivity help us to understand the trends in acid strengths and to organize them for study and learning. The chapter includes a shorthand way for describing small molar concentrations (less than 1 M ) of hy- drogen ions in water, the pH concept. It’s used throughout all of chemistry, biochemistry, and any fields of medicine that focus on the acid–base balance of a fluid of a living system. That’s why it must be learned well. Learning Objectives In this chapter, you should keep in mind the following objectives. 1 To learn the Brønsted concept of acids and bases. 2 To be able to write the formula for the conjugate acid or conjugate base of a substance. 3 To be able to identify the Brønsted acids and bases in an acid-base reaction. 4 To use the periodic table to organize information about the relative strengths of acids. 5 To use the concept of electronegativity to predict trends in the strengths of acids. 6 To learn the Lewis concept of acids and bases. 7 To learn how the periodic table “stores” information about the acidities and basicities of the oxides of the elements. 8 To be able to write the equation for the autoionization of water and its ion product con- stant, K w . 9 To learn how to calculate the molarity of H 3 O + , given that of OH , or the molarity of OH , given that of H 3 O + . 10 To learn the equations that define pH and pOH, and to calculate either given the other. 11 To be able to convert [H 3 O + ] or [OH ] into pH or into pOH. 12 To learn what the terms acidic solution, basic solution, and neutral solution mean in terms of the relative concentrations of [H 3 O + ] and [OH ] and in terms of pH. 13 To learn how the pH of a solution can be measured. 14 To learn how to calculate the concentration of [H 3 O + ] as well as the pH (or pOH) of a dilute solution of a strong acid or a strong base.
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Chapter 17 303 17.1 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases exchange protons. Review Water is not a required solvent for acid–base reactions if we define an acid as any proton (H + ) donor and a base as any proton acceptor. Acids and bases thus defined are sometimes referred to as Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases, or simply Brønsted acids and bases , after the chemists who had the fundamental insight. A
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Chap_17 - Chapter 17 Acids and Bases: A Second Look This...

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