Learning Objectives1.Understanding Sexual OrientationoIdentify the different expressions of sexual orientation.oExplain the factors that contribute to sexual orientation.oDescribe compulsory heterosexuality and how society may influence the expression of sexual orientation.2.Variations in Sexual OrientationoIdentify same-sex relationships across cultures as structured by differences in age, gender, and roles.oDescribe the social and political context of the LGBTQ movement in the United States.oDescribe bisexuality, sexual fluidity, and queer or questioning.3.Homosexuality, Discrimination, and StigmaoDiscuss the nature of sexual prejudice and homophobia.oExplain how bullying may lead to terrible outcomes.oIdentify the factors that contribute to hate crimes.4.Coming Out and Sexual Well-Being
oList various steps in deciding to be out socially.oDescribe the social and related pressures of keeping sexual orientation hidden.oDiscuss the dynamics of LGBTQ family formation in the United States.5.Sexual Orientation as a Human RightoExplain how the United Nations' stance came about.oDiscuss gay rights as human rights.Page 322Developing Your Position1.How did you come to realize your sexual orientation?2.What has culture taught you about different sexual orientations?3.Have you ever experienced or witnessed homophobia?4.What is your view about sexual orientation as a human right?Self, Society, and Culture: Self-Awareness and Sexual Orientation“A boy reports that he was sitting in the family room with his parents watching the original Star Trektelevision series. The boy is ten years old and he has not yet come into the obvious signs of puberty. He reports an absence of attractions of any kind by around age five, and even by age eight he remembers that he had not experienced overt awareness of sexual attraction. Suddenly “Captain Kirk” peels off his shirt and the 10-year-old boy is titillated. This is his first experience of same-gender attraction and he intuitively knows he should not be feeling this according to the norms of his parents and society” (Herdt & Boxer, 1993; McClintock & Herdt, 1996). By age 18, he came out as gay.“I've kind of been surprised at how intense [my attraction to women] is. I mean, when it's happening. Whoa, … I don't know … I'll sit down and talk with my friends, and be like, ‘I don't understand … it's got to be biological, because I don't have any control over this!' It's so strong, and then it just reminds me, ‘Wow! I'm so gay!'”—30-year-old woman (L. Diamond, 2008, p. 251)“This is elementary stuff, but if she smiles at you a lot or if she does more nice things than she usually does—if you start seeing that, you might want to ask her if she likes you.”—9-year-old Alec Greven (2008), How to Talk to GirlsWithout exception, from early in their lives, these three people became aware of their sexual orientations.