2011 12 52013 sensitivity to stress receptors in the

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Unformatted text preview: exposed to higher stress hormone -most common effect preterm delivery Sandman et al., 2011 12 5/20/13 Sensitivity to stress   Receptors in the maternal stress system are downregulated as pregnancy advances -->environmental stress is less effective in triggering the endocrine axis -women become less responsive to the effects of stress in late pregnancy -thus- stressful events in early pregnancy may have more of an impact on the fetus Sandman et al., 2011 Psychosocial and biological markers of stress (i) the behavior of the fetus (ii) the temperament of the neonate and young infant   (iii) the neurobehavioral characteristics of the developing infant/toddler   (iv) the structure of the nervous system in the child     Sandman et al., 2011 Gestational Stress Influences Human Fetal Behavior   Measure of startle and habituation   Several studies reported that increased maternal anxiety or psychosocial stress is associated with… -significant HR increases -increased motor activity -more time in quiet sleep -higher pulsatility index in middle cerebral artery Sandman et al., 2011 13 5/20/13 Neonatal   Elevated maternal cortisol early in gestation was associated with slower behavioral recovery from painful stress of a heel-stick procedure within 24 hr of birth Sandman et al., 2011 Gestational Stress Influences Infant Development   Elevated levels of prenatal maternal anxiety and depression were associated with increased infant fearful temperament   Elevated maternal state anxiety was associated with increased negative affectivity among healthy 3mos old infants born at term Sandman et al., 2011 Prenatal Stress and Cognition   Fetal exposure to cortisol early in pregnancy resulted in signifanctly lower scores on measures of mental development   Conversely, elevated maternal cortisol late in gestation was associated with significantly higher scores on measures of mental development Sandman et al., 2011 14 5/20/13 Gestational Stress Influences the Developing Brain at 6-9 years of age   Prenatal stress early in gestation was associated with gray matter volume reductions in brain regions are associated with a variety of cog functions -specifically, cortical areas involved in functions such as reasoning, planning, attention, WM, and some aspects of language Sandman et al., 2011 Sex-Specific Programming Effects   Female fetuses displayed more mature fetal responses -HR responses than males at 31 and 38 weeks   Female fetuses adapt more to their environment (more sensitive) more likely to adapt postnatally   Male fetuses do not alter their patterns continue to grow despite reduced resources -->more susceptible to later stress with increases in morbidity and mortality Sandman et al., 2011 Maternal Programming   Events occurring early in pregnancy were experienced as more stressful than those same events occurring   Diminished memory function (Glynn, 2010)   later in pregnancy Decreases in total brain volume (Oatridge et al., 2002) associated with prenatal trajectories of both estradiol and cortisol over the course of pregnancy and into the postpartum period Sandman et al., 2011 15 5/20/13 Results   Prenatal maternal stress was associated with   delayed fetal maturation   disrupted emotional regulation   decreased brain volume and impaired cog performance during infancy in areas associated with learning and memory in 6-9yr old children Sandman et al., 2011 Conclusions   Mother and fetus are both influenced   Fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel has important implications for long term child development and mother child interaction by exposure to psychoosocial and bio stress Sandman et al., 2011 16...
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2014 for the course PSYCH 302 taught by Professor Whitneyweikum during the Fall '13 term at University of British Columbia.

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