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Fetal learning at 32 weeks gestation the fetus

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Unformatted text preview: month of gestation G. Fetal Learning   At 32 weeks gestation, the fetus decreases responses to repeated or continued stimulation, a simple form of learning called habituation. Fetal Learning   Newborn infants have been shown to recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth. -newborns also prefer smells, tastes, and sound patterns that are familiar because of prenatal exposure 7 5/20/13 H. Hazards to Prenatal Development   So far the focus has been on the normal course of prenatal development, but sometimes there are hazards that occur during prenatal development. Miscarriage   By far the most common misfortune in prenatal development is spontaneous abortion (miscarriage).   Around 45% or more of conceptions result in very early miscarriages, and about 15-20% of pregnancies of which women are aware are miscarried -the majority of embryos that miscarry very early have svere defects 1. Environmental Influences   Teratogens are environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development. -timing is a cruicial factor in the severity of the effects of potentiall harmful agents -many agents cause damage only if exposure occurs during a sensitive period in development 8 5/20/13 Teratogens   Most teratogens show a doseresponse relation. -increases in exposure to potential terotogens are associated with greater probabilities of fetal defects and with more severe problems   Individual differences also influence the effects of teratogens. Teratogens   Identifying teratogens is made difficult by the existence of sleeper effects in which the impact of a given agent may not be apparent for many years   Teratogens include legal as well as illegal substances... Legal Drugs: Cigarettes   Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is linked to retarded growth and low birth weight.   Cigarette smoking has also been linked to SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), parents can reduce the risk of SIDS by not smoking, putting babies to sleep on their backs rather than on their stomachs, using firm mattresses and no pillows as bedding for infants, and avoiding wrapping infants in lots of blankets or clothing 9 5/20/13 Legal Drugs: Alchohol   Maternal alcoholism can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is associated with mental retardation, facial deformity, and other problems Illegal Drugs   Approximately 4...
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