S use illicit drugs marijuana effecting memory

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Unformatted text preview: % of pregnant women in the U.S. use illicit drugs.   Marijuana   -effecting memory, learning, and visual skills after birth Cocaine reported cognitive and social deficits Environmental Pollutants   Most Americans have been exposed to toxic metals, synthetic hormones, and various ingredients of plastics, pesticides, and herbicides that can be teratogenic. PCBs have been associated with small head size as newborns and slightly lower IQ scores as long as 11 years later 10 5/20/13 Occupational Hazards   Many women have jobs that bring them into contact with potentially hazardous elements (e.g., automobile exhaust, pesticides, chemicals, noise pollution). Maternal Factors   The age, nutrition, disease, and emotional state of the mother have an impact on prenatal development   Infants born to girls 15 years or younger are three to four times more likely to die before their first birthday than are those whose mothers 23-29 years of age.   An inadequate supply of specific nutrients or vitamins such as folic acid can have dramatic consequences.   A variety of diseases including sexually transmitted diseases present hazards to the fetus.   A woman’s emotional state can affect her fetus. Fetal Programming Sandman, C. A., Davis, E. P., Buss, C., & Glynn, L. M. (2011).   Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.   Neuroendocrinology, 95(1), 8-21.   11 5/20/13 Fetal Programming “predictive adaptive response” (Gluckman, Hanson, Spencer, &   Bateson, 2005; Gluckman, Hanson, & Beedle, 2007). Gluckman and colleagues define a predictive adaptive response as: -a form of developmental plasticity in which early life experiences induce a phenotype that will manifest in a later phase of life -early life envt (ex antidepresseant exposure) may induce HT related changes in neurodevelopment -->the infant would develop a capacity to match the future envt (depressed mother) -"programming effect" whereby fetal development was altered in a way that forecasted a postnatal life with a depressed mother Sandman et al., 2011   Exposure to prenatal stress influences the developing human fetus   Consequences persist into childhood -accumulating evidence from a smaller number of prospective studies -subsequent risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, shortened lifespan, asthma, and other poor health outcomes Placenta   Both a sensory and effector organ   Contains enzymes for breaking down maternal stress hormones incorporates info from its maternal host envt into the fetal developmental program -if mother's stress level exceeds enzyme limit -->fetus...
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