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high lickinggrooming vs low adult offspring that

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Unformatted text preview: The addition of methyl groups to cytosines -methylation turns genes off -effects are reversible Mice Studies   maternal behavior during early postnatal development directly modifies chromatin (Weaver et al., 2004). -high licking/grooming vs low -adult offspring that were raised by high-LG mothers were found to have a better stress response and exhibited less fear during exploration of a novel envt -changes in DNA methylation to "stress" genes -prenatal stress causes epigenetic changes -abusive maternal care alters DNA methlation patterns and effects last into adulthood -->can be "rescued" pharmacologically -adverse experiences in one generation can potentially affect another 20 5/22/13 Human Studies human caregiver experiences may also program genes through epigenetic modifications.   Human infants of mothers with high levels of depression and anxiety during the third trimester have increased methylation of the Nr3c1 gene promoter (Oberlander, Weinberg, Papsdorf,   Grunau, & Am, 2008). -the human NR3C1 gene is associated with stress reactivity -potential epigenetic process that links prenatal maternal mood and altered HPA stress reactivity during infancy Conclusions   Though there is convincing evidence that early-life experiences produce lasting changes in DNA methylation -the effect of these experiences on histone modifications remains largely undetermined Roth and Sweatt, 2011 -genes can be modified by envtl factors- epigenetics -acetylation and methylation are two methods -modifications are reversible -modifications can be passed on to offspring -most research has used mouse models -research with humans now more common 21...
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