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Unformatted text preview: rring Emergent Effects of Early Brain Damage     At 6 years of age, children with congenital brain damage scored the same as normal children. However, the children with brain damage failed to improve and fell progressively farther behind the normal children, so that by adolescence there were large differences between the two groups. 17 5/22/13 Epigenetics Roth, T. L., & David Sweatt, J. (2011). Annual Research Review: Epigenetic mechanisms and environmental shaping of the brain during sensitive periods of development.   Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(4), 398-408.     Epigenetics       Genes Environment Epigenetics – Changes to genes by the environment How does this happen?   Genes code for proteins           * Proteins → structures And, indirectly, of traits But many also regulate other genes The environment effects all of these The science of epigenetics -changes in the genome that are brought about through experience and are passed on to the next generation -sequence of amino aids is the same, but whether the genes are turned on or not changes 18 5/22/13 DNA 23 chromosome pairs Each made up of long strands of DNA   The long strands are tightly wrapped   Like the rubber bands in a golf ball   But wrapped around histone...
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