10 51313 4 mechanisms of developmental change what

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Unformatted text preview: n In general, the interaction of genes and environment determines both what changes occur and when those changes occur. 10 5/13/13 4. Mechanisms of Developmental Change   What role do genes and learning experiences play in influencing this mechanism of effortful attention?   Genes influence the production of neurotransmitters   Children’s experiences also can change the wiring of the brain 5.  The Sociocultural Context     Sociocultural context: Refers to the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child’s environment Contexts of development differ within and between cultures -in many countries, mothers and children sleep together for the first several years of the child's life, but in the US infants usually sleep sperately from their parents soon after birth -the US culture values independence and self-reliance, whereas the Mayan culture values interdependence 5.  The Sociocultural Context   Development is affected by ethnicity, race and socioeconomic status   The socioeconomic context exerts a particularly large influence on children’s lives 11 5/13/13 5.  The Sociocultural Context 6.  Individual Differences     Individual differences among children arise very quickly in development. Children’s genes, their treatment by other people, their subjective reactions to other people’s treatment of them, and their choice of environments all contribute to differences among children, even those within the same family. 7.  Research and Children’s Welfare   Child-development research yields practical benefits in diagnosing children’s problems and in helping children to overcome them. -a research method known as preferential looking has enabled the diagnosis of the effects of cataracts in infants as young as 2 months of age 12 5/13/13 Theories of Cognitive Development How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Siegler, DeLoache & Eisenberg Chapter 4 pg 128-137; pg 154-158 ;pg 164-170 Why developmental theories? 1.  Provide a framework for understanding important phenomena 2.  Raise crucial questions about human nature 3.  Motivate new research studies that lead to a better understanding of children Why not just one theory?   Because child development is a complex and varied process, no single theory accounts for all of it. -does it have an internally consistent set of assumptions? -is it specified to be faslisfible? -does it adequately describe the behaviors that are observed? -does it provide a coherent explantory framework? -can it be used to predict an outcome for a given event? 13 5/13/13 Overview   I. Piaget’s Theory   II. Core-Knowledge Theories   III. Dynamic-Systems Theories I. Piaget’s Theory A. View of Children’s Nature B. Central Development Issues C. Developmental Stages D. Piaget’s Legacy A. View of Children’s Nature   Jean Piaget’s theory remains the standard against which all other theories are judged.   children are seen as: -active -le...
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