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Unformatted text preview: n In general, the interaction of genes
and environment determines both
what changes occur and when those
changes occur. 10 5/13/13 4. Mechanisms of
What role do genes and learning
experiences play in influencing this
mechanism of effortful attention?
Genes influence the production of neurotransmitters Children’s experiences also can change the wiring of
the brain 5. The Sociocultural Context
Sociocultural context: Refers to the physical,
social, cultural, economic, and historical
circumstances that make up any child’s
Contexts of development differ within and
between cultures -in many countries, mothers and children sleep together
for the ﬁrst several years of the child's life, but in the US infants
usually sleep sperately from their parents soon after birth -the US culture values independence and self-reliance, whereas
the Mayan culture values interdependence 5. The Sociocultural Context
Development is affected by
ethnicity, race and
socioeconomic status The socioeconomic context
exerts a particularly large
influence on children’s lives 11 5/13/13 5. The Sociocultural Context 6. Individual Differences
among children arise
very quickly in
Children’s genes, their
treatment by other
to other people’s treatment of them, and their
choice of environments all contribute to
differences among children, even those within
the same family. 7. Research and
practical benefits in
problems and in
helping children to
overcome them. -a research method known as preferential looking has
the diagnosis of the effects of cataracts in infants as young as
2 months of age 12 5/13/13 Theories of
How Children Develop (3rd ed.)
Siegler, DeLoache & Eisenberg Chapter 4 pg 128-137; pg
154-158 ;pg 164-170 Why developmental theories?
1. Provide a framework for
phenomena 2. Raise crucial questions about
human nature 3. Motivate new research
studies that lead to a better
understanding of children Why not just one theory?
Because child development is a complex and
varied process, no single theory accounts for
all of it. -does it have an internally consistent set of assumptions?
-is it speciﬁed to be faslisﬁble?
-does it adequately describe the behaviors that are observed?
-does it provide a coherent explantory framework?
-can it be used to predict an outcome for a given event? 13 5/13/13 Overview
I. Piaget’s Theory II. Core-Knowledge
Theories III. Dynamic-Systems
Theories I. Piaget’s Theory
A. View of Children’s Nature
B. Central Development Issues
C. Developmental Stages
D. Piaget’s Legacy A. View of Children’s Nature
Jean Piaget’s theory remains
the standard against which all
other theories are judged.
children are seen as:
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- Fall '13