B social reform movements in the nineteenth century

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Unformatted text preview: hat parents and society should give the child maximum freedom from the beginning. B. Social Reform Movements   In the nineteenth century, research was conducted for the benefit of children C. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution   Later in the nineteenth century, Charles Darwin’s work on evolution inspired research in child development in order to gain insights into the nature of the human species   A Biographical Sketch of an Infant (Darwin, 1877) 6 5/13/13 D. The Emergence of Child Development as a Discipline   Child development emerged as a formal field of inquiry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.   Sigmund Freud and John Watson formulated influential theories of development during this period. Freud and Watson   Freud concluded that biological drives exerted a crucial influence on development.   Watson argued that children’s behavior arises largely from the rewards and punishments that follow particular behaviors. III. Enduring Themes in Child Development 1. Nature and Nurture 2. The Active Child 3. Continuity/Discontinuity 4. Mechanisms of Developmental Change 5. The Sociocultural Context 6. Individual Differences 7. Research and Children’s Welfare 7 5/13/13 Basic Questions About Child Development Questions How do nature and nurture together shape development? How do children shape their own development? In what ways is development continuous, and in what ways is it discontinuous? How does change occur? How does the sociocultural context influence development? How do children become so different from each other? How can research promote children’s well-being? Themes Nature and nurture The active child Continuity/ Discontinuity Mechanisms of developmental change The sociocultural context Individual differences Research and children’s welfare 1.  Nature and Nurture   The single most basic question about child development is how nature and nurture interact to shape the developmental process.   Nature refers to our biological endowment   Nurture refers to the wide range of environments 1. Nature and Nurture   Developmentalists now recognize that every characteristic we possess is created through the joint workings of nature and nurture.   They ask how nature and nurture work together to shape development. 8 5/13/13 three of the most important contributions during childrens first years are their: attentional problems use of language play 2.  The Active Child   Children contribute to their own development from early in life   Children make important contributions during their first years of life age-related changes occur gradually 3.  Continuity/Discontinuity Continuous development: 3.  Continuity/Discontinuity age-related changes include occasional large shifts so that children of different ages seem qualitatively different Discontinuous development: 9 5/13/13 3.  Continuity/Discontinuity Stage theories propose that development occurs in a progression shifts 3.  Continuity/Discontinuity   Depending on how it is viewed, changes in height can be viewed as either continuous or discontinuous. 4.  Mechanisms of Developmental Change   examining a boy's height at yearly intervals from birth-18 makes the growth look gradual and continuous -examining changes in the same boy's height from 1yr to the next makes growth seem discontinuous -for ex: one mechanism involves the role of brain activity, genes and learning experiences in the development of effortful attentio...
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