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Central developmental issues 1 nature and nurture

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Unformatted text preview: arning many important lessons on their own -intrinsically motivated to learn Often labeled constructivist because it depicts children as constructing knowledge for themselves. 14 5/13/13 B. Central Developmental Issues   1. Nature and Nurture   Piaget believed that nature and nurture interact to yield cognitive development. 2. Sources of Continuity   Three processes work together from birth to propel development forward.   Assimilation:   Accommodation:   adaptation: the tendency to respond to the demands of the envt to meet one's goals organization: the tendency to integrate particular observations into coherent knowledge assimilation: the process by which people translate incoming info into a form they can understand accomodation: the process by which people adapt current knowledge structure in response to new experiences Equilibration: equilibration: the process by which people balance assimilation and accomodation to create stable understanding Piaget: Learning 15 5/13/13 3. Sources of Discontinuity   The discontinuous aspects of Piaget’s theory are distinct, hierarchical stages.   Hypothesized that children progress through four stages of cognitive development, each building on the previous one central properties of stage theory: -qualitative change -broad applicability across topics and contexts -brief transitions -invariant sequence Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Birth to Infants know the world through their 2 years senses and through their actions. For example, they learn what dogs look like and what petting them feels like. Sensorimotor Stage   Over the course of the first two years, infants’ sensorimotor intelligence develops tremendously. 16 5/13/13 Sensorimotor Substages Sub Age Description 1 Birth – 1 month Infants begin to modify the reflexes with which they are born to make them more adaptive. 2 1–4 months Infants begin to organize separate reflexes into larger behaviors, most of which are centered on their own bodies. Sensorimotor Substages Sub Age Description 3 4–8 months Infants becoming increasingly interested in the world around them. By the end of this substage, object permanence, the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view, typically emerges. 4 8 – 12 months During this substage, children make the A-Not-B error, the tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden. Sensorimotor Substages Sub Age Description 5 12 – 18 months Toddlers begin to actively and avidly explore the potential uses to which objects can be put. 6 18 – 24 months Infants become able to form enduring mental representations. The first sign of this capacity is deferred imitation, the repetition of other people’s behavior a substantial time after it occurred. 17 5/13/13 Piaget’s Legacy   Although Piaget’s theory remains highly influential, some weaknesses are now apparent.   The stage model depicts children’s thinking as being mor...
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