Dynamic systems theories a view of childrens nature b

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Unformatted text preview: f personification, young children’s extrapolation from what they know about people to predict the qualities of other animals, is important to address in correcting some misconceptions in children’s early biological understanding. 20 5/13/13 III. Dynamic Systems Theories A. View of Children’s Nature B. Central Developmental Issues III. Dynamic-Systems Theories   Emphasize how varied aspects of the child function as a single, integrated whole to produce behavior. by emphaszing the relations among motor activities, attention, and other aspects of children's behaviour, dynamic-systems approaches improve our understanding of how development occurs A. View of Children’s Nature   Emphasize children’s innate motivations to explore the environment   Emphasize precise analysis of problem-solving activity   Emphasize early emerging competencies   Emphasize the formative influence of other people 21 5/13/13 1. Motivators of Development   Emphasize that from infancy onward, children are strongly motivated to learn about the world around them and to explore and expand their own capabilities. 2. The Centrality of Action   -also emphasize infants' interest in the social world as a crucial motivator of development -mirror neurons: nerve cells that are activated when someone observes another person perform a given goal-directed action Dynamic systems theories are unique in their pervasive emphasis on how children’s specific actions shape their development. B. Central Developmental Issues   Two central developmental issues are how the cognitive system organizes itself and how it changes. 22 5/13/13 1. Self-Organization   Dynamic-systems theories view development as a process of self-organization. -self-organization involves bringing together and integrating components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing envt -the organizational process is sometimes called self assembly, because the compoennts and their organization change and system to system 2. How Change Occurs   Dynamic-systems theories posit that changes occur through mechanisms of variation and selection that are analogous to those that produce biological evolution. variation: different behaviors being generated to produce the same goal selection: an increasing choice of behaviors that are effective in meeting goals and a decreasing choice of less effective behaviors -relative success, efficiency, and novelty Educational Applications of Dynamic-Systems Theories   A recent intervention based on dynamicsystems research was quite successful in improving the reaching abilities of preterm infants. experimental group: caregivers provide infants with special movements experiences control groups: caregivers provide infants with special social experiences reaching improved in both groups, but the experimental group improved to a greater degree 23...
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