1 music perception recent research evidence suggests

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Unformatted text preview: erceiving subtle differences in human speech. 1. Music Perception   Recent research evidence suggests a biological foundation for music perception.   -infants share the strong preferences adults have for some musical sounds over others -infants also respond to rhythm in music and are sensitive to melody, showing habituation to the same tune regardless of pitch Infants also respond to rhythm in music and are sensitive to melody C. Taste and Smell   Sensitivity to taste and smell develops before birth.   Newborns have an innate preference for sweet flavors.   Newborns prefer the smell of breast milk -by 2 weeks of age appear to be able to differentiaite the scent of their own mothers from that of other women 7 5/29/13 D. Touch   Infants learn about the environment through active touch.   Oral exploration dominates for the first few months. around 4mos of age, infants gain greater control over their hand and arm movements, and manual exploration gradually takes precedence over oral exploration E. Intermodal Perception   The combining of information from two or more senses is present from very early in life.   Very young infants link sight and sound, oral and visual experience, and visual and tactile experience. -when 2 videos are presented simultaneously, 4mos infants prefer to watch the images that correspond to the sounds that they are hearing -using a similar technique, researchers have found that by 6 mos of age, iinfants associate facial expressions with emotion in voices Research Technique for Intermodal Perception       A set-up like this one enables researchers to study auditory–visual intermodal perception. The two computer screens display different films, one of which is coordinated with a soundtrack. The video camera records the infant’s looking toward the two screens. 8 5/29/13 II. Learning A. Habituation B. Perceptual Learning C. Statistical Learning D. Classical Conditioning E. Instrumental Conditioning F. Observational Learning A. Habituation   A decrease in responsiveness to repeated stimulation reveals that learning has occurred. -the infant has a memory representation of the repeated, now familiar stimulus   The speed with which an infant habituates is believed to reflect the general efficiency of the infant’s processing of information. -a substantial degree of continuity has been found between these measures in infancy and general cog ability later in life -example in textbook B. Perceptual Learning   Infants actively search for order and regularity in the world around them.   Differentiation is the extraction from the constantly changing stimulation in the environment   A particularly important part of perceptual learning is the infant’s discovery of affordances , the possibilites for action offered by object and situations of those elements that are invariant or stable 9 5/29/13 C. Statistical Learning   Involves picking up information from the environment -forming associations among stimuli that occur in a statistically predictable envt   From quite early on, infants are sensit...
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2014 for the course PSYCH 302 taught by Professor Whitneyweikum during the Fall '13 term at University of British Columbia.

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